Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 116, Issue 4, pp 433–447 | Cite as

Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry

  • Tim Holland
  • Jon Blundy


Amphibole thermodynamics are approximated with the symmetric formalism (regular solution model for within-site non-ideality and a reciprocal solution model for cross-site-terms) in order to formulate improved thermometers for amphibole-plagioclase assemblages. This approximation provides a convenient framework with which to account for composition-dependence of the ideal (mixing-on-sites) equilibrium constants for the equilibria:
  1. A)


  2. B)



For A and B all possible within-site and cross-site interactions among the species □−K−Na−Ca−Mg−Fe2+−Fe3+−Al−Si on the A, M4, M1, M3, M2 and T1 amphibole crystallographic sites were examined. Of the 36 possible interaction energy terms, application of the symmetric formalism results in a dramatic simplification to eight independent parameters. Plagioclase nonideality is modelled using Darken's quadratic formalism. We have supplemented an experimental data set of 92 amphibole-plagioclase pairs with 215 natural pairs from igneous and metamorphic rocks in which the pressure and temperature of equilibration are well constrained. Regression of the combined dataset yields values for the eight interaction parameters as well as for apparent enthalpy, entropy and volume changes for each reaction. These parameters are used to formulate two new thermometers, which perform well (±40°C) in the range 400–1000°C and 1–15 kbar over a broad range of bulk compositions, including tschermakitic amphiboles from garnet amphibolites which caused problems for the simple thermometer of Blundy and Holland (1990). For silica-saturated rocks both thermometers may be applied: in silica-undersaturated rocks or magmas thermometer B alone can be applied. An improved procedure for estimation of ferric iron in calcic amphiboles is presented in the appendix.


Solution Model Ferric Iron Regular Solution Bulk Composition Symmetric Formalism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim Holland
    • 1
  • Jon Blundy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland
  2. 2.CETSEI, Department of GeologyUniversity of BristolBristolEngland

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