Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 110, Issue 1, pp 121–132 | Cite as

Phase relationships in Buchan facies series pelitic assemblages: calculations with application to andalusite-staurolite parageneses in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia

  • Peter Dymoke
  • Michael Sandiford


Low-pressure, medium- to high-temperature (Buchan-type) regional metamorphism of pelitic rocks in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, is defined by the development of biotite, staurolite-andalusite, fibrolite, prismatic sillimanite and migmatite zones. K-feldspar makes its first appearance in the prismatic sillimanite zone and here we restrict our discussion to lower grade assemblages containing prograde muscovite, concentrating particularly on well-developed andalusitestaurolite parageneses. In general, the spatial distribution and mineral chemical variation of these assemblages accord with the predictions of petrogenetic grids and P-T and T-XFe pseudo-sections constructed from the internally consistent data set of Holland and Powell (1990) in the system KFMASH, assuming a(H2O) ∼1, although analysed white mica compositions are systematically more aluminous than predicted. Importantly, the stability ranges of most critical assemblages predicted by these grids and pseudo-sections coincide closely with P-T estimates calculated using the data set of Holland and Powell (1990) from the Mount Lofty Ranges assemblages. With the exception of Mn in garnet and Zn in one staurolite-cordierite-muscovite assemblage non-KFMASH components do not significantly appear to have affected the stability ranges of the observed assemblages. An apparent local reversal in isograd zonation in which andalusite first appears down-grade of staurolite suggests a metamorphic field gradient concave towards the temperature axis and, together with evidence for essentially isobaric heating of individual rocks, is consistent with the exposures representing an oblique profile through a terrain in which heat was dissipated from intrusive bodies at discrete structural levels.


Stability Range Regional Metamorphism Andalusite White Mica Pelitic Rock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Mineral abbreviations used in figures


Al2SiO5 phase
























Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold J, Sandiford M (1990) Petrogenesis of cordierite-orthoamphibole assemblages from the Springton region, South Australia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 106:100–109Google Scholar
  2. Daily B, Milnes AR (1972) Significance of basal Cambrian metasediments of andalusite grade, Dudley Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Search 3:89–90Google Scholar
  3. England P, Richardson SW (1977) The influence of erosion upon the mineral facies of rocks from different metamorphic environments. J Geol Soc Lond 134:201–213Google Scholar
  4. Essene EJ (1989) The current status of thermobarometry in metamorphic rocks. In: Daly JS, Cliff RA, Yardley BWD (eds) Evolution of metamorphic belts: Geol Soc London Spec Publ 43, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  5. Foden JD, Turner SP, Morrison G (1990) Tectonic implications of Delamarian magmatism in Sough Australia and Western Victoria. In: Jago JB, Moore PS (eds) The evolution of a late Precambrian-early Paleozoic rift complex: the Adelaide Geosyncline. Geol Soc Aust Spec Publ 16, pp 465–481Google Scholar
  6. Glen RA, Laing WP, Parker AJ, Rutland RWR (1977) Tectonic relationships between the Proterozoic Gawler and Willyama orogenic domains, Australia, J Geol Soc Aust 24:125–150Google Scholar
  7. Grew ES, Sandiford M (1985) Staurolite in a garnet-hornblendebiotite schist from the Lanterman range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Neues Jahrb Miner Monatsh 9:396–410Google Scholar
  8. Guidotti CV, Cheney JT, Conator PD (1975) Coexisting cordierite +biotite+chlorite from the Rumford Quadrangle, Maine. Geology 3:147–148Google Scholar
  9. Guiraud M, Holland TJB, Powell R (1990) Mineral equilibria at glaucophane schist to eclogite facies in the system Na2O−MgO−FeO−Al2O3−SiO2−H2O. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:85–98Google Scholar
  10. Harte B, Hudson NFC (1979) Pelite facies series and the temperatures and pressures of Dalradian metamorphism in E. Scotland. In: Harris AL, Holland CH, Leake BE (eds) The Caledonides of the British Isle — reviewed. Geol Soc Lond and Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp 323–337Google Scholar
  11. Hensen BJ (1971) Theoretical phase relationships involving cordierite and garnet in the system MgO−FeO−Al2O3−SiO2. Contrib Mineral Petrol 33:191–214Google Scholar
  12. Hess PC (1969) The metamorphic paragenesis of cordierite in pelitic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 63:175–198Google Scholar
  13. Holdaway MJ, Lee SM (1977) Fe−Mg cordierite stability in high grade pelitic rocks based on experimental, theoretical and natural observations. Contrib Mineral Petrol 63:175–198Google Scholar
  14. Holland TJB, Powell R (1990) An enlarged and updated internally consistent thermodynamic dataset with uncertainties and correlations: the system K2O−Na2O−CaO−MgO−MnO−FeO−Al2O3−TiO2−SiO2−C−H2−O2. J Metamorphic Geol 8:89–124Google Scholar
  15. Hudson NFC (1980) Regional metamorphism of some Dalradian pelites in the Buchan area, N.E. Scotland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 73:39–51Google Scholar
  16. Kerrick DM (1987) Fibrolite in contact aureoles of Donegal, Ireland. Am Mineral 72:240–254Google Scholar
  17. Mancktelow NS (1990) The structure of the southern Adelaide Fold Belt, South Australia. In: Jago JB, Moore PS (eds) The evolution of a late Precambrian-early Paleozoic rift complex: the Adelaide Geosyncline. Geol Soc Aust Spec Publ 16, pp 369–395Google Scholar
  18. Massonne HJ, Schreyer W (1987) Phengite geobarometry based on the limiting assemblage with k-feldspar, phlogopite and quartz. Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:212–224Google Scholar
  19. Mills K (1964) The structural geology of an area east of Springton, South Australia. Unpubl PhD Thesis, Univ AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  20. Milnes AR (1982) The Encounter Bay granites and their relationship to the Kanmantoo Group. In: Oliver RL, Gatehouse C (eds) Guide to excursions B1, B2, B3, B4, Geology of the Adelaide region. Fourth Int Symp Antarctic Earth Sci, pp 16–29Google Scholar
  21. Miyashiro A, Shido F (1984) The Tschermak's substitution in low-and middle-grade pelitic schists. J Petrol 26:449–487Google Scholar
  22. Offler R, Fleming PD (1968) A synthesis of folding and metamorphism in the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia. J Geol Soc Aus 15:245–266Google Scholar
  23. Pattison DRM (1987) Variations in Mg/(Mg+Fe), F, and (Fe,Mg)-Si=2 Al in pelitic minerals in the Ballachulish thermal aureole, Scotland. Am Mineral 72:255–272Google Scholar
  24. Powell R (1985) Geothermometry and geobarometry: a discussion. J Geol Soc Lond 142:29–38Google Scholar
  25. Powell R, Evans JA (1983) A new geobarometer for the assemblage biotite-muscovite-chlorite-quartz. J Metamorphic Geol 1:331–336Google Scholar
  26. Powell R, Holland TJB (1988) An internally consistent data set with uncertainties and correlations, 3: applications to geobarometry, worked examples and a computer program. J Metamorphic Geol 6:173–204Google Scholar
  27. Powell R, Holland TJB (1988) Calculated mineral equilibria in the pelite system KFMASH (K2O−FeO−MgO−Al2O3−SiO2−H2O). Am Mineral 75:367–380Google Scholar
  28. Sandiford M, Oliver RL, Mills KJ, Allen RV (1990) A cordieritestaurolite association, east of Springton, Mt. Lofty Ranges: implications for the metamorphic evolution of the Kanmantoo Group. In: Jago JB, Moore PS (eds) The evolution of a late Precambrian — early Paleozoic rift complex: the Adelaide Geosyncline. Geol Soc Aust Spec Publ 16, pp 482–495Google Scholar
  29. Seifert RC (1970) Low temperature compatibility relations of cordierite in haplopelites of the system K2O−MgO−Al2O3−SiO2−H2O. J Petrol 11:73–99Google Scholar
  30. Thompson AB (1976) Mineral reactions in some pelitic rocks, 11: calculation of some P-T-X (fe-Mg) phase relations. Am J Sci 276:425–454Google Scholar
  31. Velde B (1965) Phengitic micas, synthesis, stability and natural occurrence. Am J Sci 263:886–913Google Scholar
  32. Will T, Powell R, Holland TJB, Guiraud M (1990) Mineral equilibria at greenschist facies conditions in the system CaO−MgO−FeO−Al2O3−SiO2−H2O−CO2. Contrib Mineral Petrol 105:347–358Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Dymoke
    • 1
  • Michael Sandiford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations