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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 13–32 | Cite as

Geochemical characterization and origin of granitoids from the South Bohemian Batholith in Lower Austria

  • C. Vellmer
  • K. H. Wedepohl
Article

Abstract

Major and 31 minor elements have been determined in 39 large samples of Variscan granitoids from 6 plutons or intrusions from the South Bohemian Batholith (Rastenberg, Weinsberg, Mauthausen, Schrems, Eisgarn and Gebharts). The granitoids are mainly granites but also diorites, tonalites, trondhjemites, granodiorites. Average concentrations of Ba, Th, U, La, Ce, Pb, Nd, Sr and K in the Weinsberg, Mauthausen and Schrems granites exceed those in average felsic I- and S-type granites by factors ranging between 2.1 and 1.3. The granites melts formed at waterundersaturated conditions and intruded at 10 to 15 km depth during late-tectonic and post-tectonic phases of the Variscan orogeny (about 330 to 300 Ma ago). Hydrothermal or low temperature alteration is excluded for the majority of samples from a study of oxygen isotopes. The thickness of the plutons is estimated at about 6 km from heat balance constraints. By analogy with experimental partial melting, three different sources of the granitoids can be identified and chemically characterized: (1) The trondhjemites, tonalites and diorites in the early Rastenberg pluton are products of 15 to 40% melting respectively of a mafic (partly amphibolitic) lower crust. Redwitzites from the West Bohemian Massif which are comparable in age partly resemble the Rastenberg rocks. The mafic sources of the Rastenberg granitoids and redwitzites are crustally contaminated as reflected in their Sr-Nd isotopes. (2) The very large syn-tectonic Weinsberg pluton was formed from about 30% partial melting of a tonalitic lower crust at 800 to 850°C. Its low proportion of ca. 10% restite has a ferrodioritic composition. The post-tectonic fine-grained Mauthausen and Schrems granites which tend to a granodioritic mode, are very low in restite and are also products of melting of a tonalitic source. (3) The youngest (leuco-)granite, the Eisgarn pluton (high in Si, P, Li, Rb, Cs, U,87Sr/86Sr and low in Ca, Sr, Ba) reflects a pelitic source. The change from mafic to tonalitic to pelitic source composition for the granitoid sequence may indicate that the depth of melt formation decreased with time. The concentration of heavy rare earth elements decreased from Weinsberg to Eisgarn granites which indicates an increasing proportion of garnet in the source. The orogenic heat conformable with a heat flow of about 100 mWm-2 was provided by mafic intrusions. An alternative would be a drastic increase of the crustal thickness which cannot be recognized by barometry of the associated metamorphic rocks. Exposed metamorphic country rocks occur in higher amphibolite facies indicating about 5 kbar pressure. Mafic intrusions contain gabbros (Kleinzwettl) or have formed (quartz-)diorites (Gebharts), the latter being contaminated by granitic melts from partial melting of the wall rocks (MASH process). Largescale contamination by crustal materials can be observed in δ18O and in Sr-Nd isotopes. The major mafic activity was probably caused by depression of solidus temperatures in the mantle wedge above a subduction zone where water was available from dehydration of subducted ocean crust. This water initiated partial melting of ultramafic rocks and metasomatism in the uppermost mantle above the level of melting. The water also mobilized highly incompatible elements (Ba, Th, U, La, Ce, Pb, Nd, Sr and K) from the uppermost mantle and transported them into the lower crust. Indicators of a nearby subduction or collision zone of Late Variscan age in addition to the specific association of granitoidal rocks are abundant upper mantle tectonites. An alternate or additional source of metasomatic fluids may have been dehydration of lower crustal rocks during Variscan high-grade metamorphism.

Keywords

Partial Melting Lower Crust Bohemian Massif Uppermost Mantle Mafic Intrusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Vellmer
    • 1
  • K. H. Wedepohl
    • 1
  1. 1.Geochemisches Institut der UniversitätGöttingenGermany

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