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Zoomorphology

, Volume 96, Issue 1–2, pp 113–167 | Cite as

On the structure and homologues of the anterior end of the polychaete families sabellidae and serpulidae

  • Lars Orrhage
Article

Summary

The nature and homologues of the appendages of the anterior end of the polychaete families Sabellidae and Serpulidae have long been discussed. The main purpose of the present investigation, in which seven sabellid and eight serpulid species are studied, is to contribute towards the solution of these problems. At the same time, however, the present study, within its limited range, aims to enlarge our knowledge of the anatomy of the polychaetes in general. Such a knowledge, it is argued, is a prerequisite for further consideration of the phylogeny of the Polychaeta.

As shown in many earlier papers, the architecture of the cephalic nervous system and the innervation of the organs and appendages of the anterior end of polychaetes constitute reliable instruments for elucidating the morphological significance of these structures. In the present paper, consequently, extra consideration is given to descriptions of the central nervous system of the sabellids and serpulids studied.

The integumental depression found in front of and below the brain of all the sabellids and serpulids here studied is described by the term “dorsal pit”. It is concluded that the dorsal pit within each family in all probability represents a homologous structure, but it is in no way proven that the dorsal pit of the sabellids is equivalent to that of the serpulids.

Some earlier literature maintains that paired antennae [antennes de première paire in Binard and Jennerś (1928) terminology] are found in some sabellids and serpulids. In the present paper it is maintained that these structures must instead be interpreted as nuchal organs. Such organs are found in all the sabellid and serpulid species here studied.

The Pruvot-Meyer theory which claims that the joint pore of the thoracic nephridia of the “serpulimorphic” families is equivalent to the nuchal organ of other polychaetes is shown to be without foundation, and it is consequently rejected.

The histology, vascularization, and innervation of the branchial crown and the appendages of the dorsal lip of the mouth of the species investigated are described. It is concluded that the branchial crown and some (but not all) appendages of the dorsal lip are equivalent to the palps (when present) of the “spiomorphic”, the “drilomorphic”, and the “errant” polychaetes.

The appendages of the dorsal lip of the mouth, in most faunistic literature called palps, are found to represent structures of three different kinds and origins: (a) branchial radioli which have become separated from the crown and have fused with the lip, (b) branchial pinnulae which have undergone a similar process of dislocation, and (c) new formations from the walls of the mouth cavity. It is proposed that in comparative-anatomical works these appendages should be called (a) lip-associated radioli, (b) lip-associated pinnulae, and (c) outgrowths of the dorsal lip respectively. As a joint and anatomically neutral term to be used in faunas and descriptions of the outer morphology, the expression “appendages of the dorsal lip” or, more briefly, “(dorsal) lip processes” is proposed.

The interrelationships of the Sabellariidae, the Sabellidae, and the Serpulidae are discussed, as is the taxonomic subdivision of the last two families. In agreement with some earlier authors although contrary to others it is thereby maintained that:
  1. 1)

    the suborder Serpulimorpha Hatschek (1893) (inclucing sabellariids, sabellids, and serpulids) does not constitute a natural systematic unit;

     
  2. 2)

    the sabellids and serpulids, although markedly different in many respects (thoracic membrane, operculum, branchial skeleton), are probably closely related to each other. Earlier arguments supporting this view are corroborated by data on the dorsal lip processes and the architecture of the brain of the two families;

     
  3. 3)

    Rioja's (1923) division (based on setal structures) of the Sabellidae into the three subfamilies Sabellinae, Fabriciinae, and Myxicolinae is supported by the anatomical data emphasized in the present paper; and

     
  4. 4)

    within the Serpulidae the genera Apomatus and Protula should be referred to the subfamily Filograninae [as proposed by Rioja (1923), followed, among others, by Fauvel (1927), and Hartmann-Schröder (1971)] and not to the Serpulinae, [as maintained by Hartman (1959) and Fauchald (1977)]. Again, the view presented by the present author is founded on anatomical data (the morphological value of the dorsal lip processes of the genera in question).

     

Keywords

Anatomical Data Early Argument Neutral Term Mouth Cavity Branchial Crown 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

aac

anterior association commissure

acdrcc

anterior coil of drcc

apmcg

anterior part of mcg

astlap

axis of supporting tissue of lap

astlar

axis of supporting tissue of lar

astp

axis of supporting tissue of pinnula

astr

axis of supporting tissue of radiolus

ataac

anterior tract of aac

atdac

anterior tract of dac

atvac

anterior tract of vac

bfr

basal fold of radiolus

bgr

basal groove of radiolus

bvlap

blood vessel of lap

bvlar

blood vessel of lar

bvmdr

blood vessel of the most dorsal radiolus

bvp

blood vessel of pinnula

bvr

blood vessel of radiolus

bvrr

blood vessels of radioli

cc

circum-oesophageal connective(s)

cg

cerebral ganglion

cil

cilia

cnac

commissure of nac and nmr

cnof

common nerve of oral filaments

ctndbv

curved tract of ndbv

dac

dorsal association commissure

dcdr

dorsal commissure of drcc

dcvr

dorsal commissure of vrcc

dg

dorsal ganglion

dl

dorsal lip

dn

dorsal nerve from dcdr

dnno

diffuse nervous lamina of nuchal organ

dp

dorsal pit

drcc

dorsal root of cc

drnbc

dorsal root of nbc

gmnbc

ganglion of mnbc

lap

lip-associated pinnula

lar

lip-associated radiolus

lbv

large branchial blood vessel

lcg

lateral cerebral ganglion

lgndbv

lateral ganglion of ndbv

lgr

lateral groove of radiolus

lgvac

lateral ganglion of vac

llat

left longitudinal association tract

lnbc

lateral nerve of branchial crown

lnn

lateral nuchal nerve

lns1

lateral nerve of segment 1

lns2

lateral nerve of segment 2

lprndbv

lateral posterior root of ndbv

m

mouth

mcg

median cerebral ganglion

mgndbv

median ganglion of ndbv

mnbc

median nerve of branchial crown

mnn

median nuchal nerve

mprndbv

median posterior root of ndbv

nac

nerve(s) of the alimentary canal

nbc

nerve of the branchial crown

nc

nerve of collar

ndbv

nerve of the dorsal blood vessel

nlar

nerve of lar

nmdr

nerve of the most dorsal radiolus

nmr

nerve(s) of the mouth region

nn

nuchal nerve

nlap

nerve of lip-associated pinnula

nr

nerve(s) of radiolus (-i)

nvlm1nvlm2

nerves to ventral longitudinal muscles

odl

outgrowths of the dorsal lip

oes

oesophagus

pcdrcc

posterior coil of drcc

pnr1pnr2 etc.

first, second, etc., palp nerve root

ptdac

posterior tract of dac

ptvac

posterior tract of vac

rlat

right longitudinal association tract

sstlar

surrounding sheath of supporting tissue of lar

sstr

surrounding sheath of supporting tissues of radiolus

stlar

supporting tissue of lar

stndbv

sagittal tract of ndbv

vac

ventral association commissure

vcdr

ventral commissure of drcc

vcvr

ventral commissure of vrcc

vg1

first ventral ganglion

vg2

second ventral ganglion

vg3

third ventral ganglion

vl

ventral lip

vrcc

ventral root of cc

vrnbc

ventral root of nbc

vs

ventral sac

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Orrhage
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Invertebrate ZoologySwedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden

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