Advertisement

Psychological Research

, Volume 49, Issue 2–3, pp 81–90 | Cite as

Egocentric and relative spatial codes in S-R compatibility

  • Carlo Umiltà
  • Mario Liotti
Article

Summary

It has been shown that spatial compatibility is due to a comparison between the spatial codes that describe stimulus and response positions. Such codes are often defined in right-left terms. There are, however, two types of right-left codes that can be used for describing a position in space. One is formed with relation to the egocentric axes and can be termed “side”, whereas the other is formed with relation to an external reference location and can be termed “relative position”. Five experiments were conducted to determine the role of these different codes in producing spatial compatibility effects. In Experiments 1 and 2 the position of the stimulus provided the relevant cue for choosing the correct response (i.e., the situation was typical of spatial compability proper), whereas in Experiments 3, 4, and 5 the stimulus provided a locational cue that was not necessary for choosing the correct response (i.e., the situation was typical of the Simon effect). The experimental manipulations concerned the task demands and the time elapsing between availability of the stimulus code and availability of the response code. The results showed that upon stimulus presentation, both stimulus codes (that concerning side and that concerning relative position) were formed, but experimental manipulations determined the one that was effective in yielding compatibility effects. When the task required the use of one type of code, then spatial compatibility depended on that code alone. When the two coding processes were separated in time, then spatial compatibility depended only on the code that was formed simultaneously with the response code.

Keywords

Correct Response Experimental Manipulation Task Demand Simon Effect Compatibility Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bradshaw, J. L., Nathan, G., Nettleton, N. C., Pierson, J. M., & Wilson, L. E. (1983). Head and body hemispace to left and right. III. Vibrotactile stimulation and sensory and motor components. Perception, 12, 651–661.Google Scholar
  2. Brebner, J. (1973). S-R compatibility and changes in RT with practice. Acta Psychologica, 37, 93–106.Google Scholar
  3. Brebner, J., Shepard, M., & Cairney, P. (1972). Spatial relationships and S-R compatibility. Acta Psychologica, 36, 1–15.Google Scholar
  4. Dyer, F. N. (1973). The Stroop phenomenon and its use in the study of perceptual, cognitive, and response processes. Memory & Cognition, 1, 106–120.Google Scholar
  5. Heilman, K. M., & Valenstein, E. (1979). Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Archives of Neurology, 5, 166–170.Google Scholar
  6. Jensen, A. R., & Rohwer, W. D., Jr. (1966). The Stroop color-word test: A review. Acta Psychologica, 25, 36–93.Google Scholar
  7. Nicoletti, R., Anzola, G. P., Luppino, G., Rizzolatti, G., & Umiltà, C. (1982). Spatial compatibility effects on the same side of the body midline. Journal of Experiment Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 664–673.Google Scholar
  8. Nicoletti, R., & Umiltà, C. (1984). Right-left prevalence in spatial compatibility. Perception & Psychophysics, 35, 333–343.Google Scholar
  9. Nicoletti, R., & Umiltà, C. Splitting the visual world through focal attention. Manuscript in preparation for publication.Google Scholar
  10. Nicoletti, R., Umiltà, C., & Ladavas, E. (1984). Compatibility due to the coding of the relative position of the effectors. Acta Psychologica, 57, 133–143.Google Scholar
  11. Pierson, J. M., Bradshaw, J. L., & Nettleton, N. C. (1983). Head and body space to left and right, front and rear. I. Unidirectional competitive auditory stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 21, 463–473.Google Scholar
  12. Schneider, R., Dumais, S. T., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1984). Automatic and control processing and attention. In R. Parasuraman, & D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 1–27). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing. II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–190.Google Scholar
  14. Simon, J. R. (1969). Reactions toward the source of stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 174–176.Google Scholar
  15. Simon, J. R. (1982). Effect of an auditory stimulus on the processing of a visual stimulus under single- and dual-tasks conditions. Acta Psychologica, 51, 61–73.Google Scholar
  16. Simon, J. R., & Acosta, E., Jr. (1982). Effect of irrelevant information on the processing of relevant information: Facilitation and/or interference? The influence of experimental design. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 383–388.Google Scholar
  17. Simon, J. R., Acosta, E., Jr., & Mewaldt, S. P. (1975). Effect of locus of warning tone on auditory choice reaction time. Memory & Cognition, 3, 167–170.Google Scholar
  18. Simon, J. R., Acosta, E., Jr., Mewaldt, S. P., & Speidel, C. R. (1976 a). The effect of an irrelevant directional cue on choice reaction time: Duration of the phenomenon and its relation to stages of processing. Perception & Psychophysics, 19, 16–22.Google Scholar
  19. Simon, J. R., Mewaldt, S. P., Acosta, E., Jr., & Hu, J. M. (1976 b). Processing auditory information: Interaction of two population stereotypes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 354–358.Google Scholar
  20. Simon, J. R., Sly, P. E., & Vilapakkam, S. (1981). Effects of compatibility of S-R mapping on reactions toward the stimulus source. Acta Psychologica, 47, 63–81.Google Scholar
  21. Teichner, W. H., & Krebs, M. J. (1974). Laws of visual choice reaction time. Psychological Review, 81, 75–98.Google Scholar
  22. Umiltà, C., & Nicoletti, R. (1985). Attention and coding effects in S-R compatibility due to irrelevant spatial cues. In M. I. Posner & O. S. M. Marin (Eds.), Mechanisms of attention: Attention and performance XI (pp. 457–471). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Wallace, R. J. (1971). S-R compatibility and the idea of the response code. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 354–360.Google Scholar
  24. Wallace, R. J. (1972). Spatial S-R compatibility effects involving kinesthetic cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 163–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Umiltà
    • 1
  • Mario Liotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Istituto di Fisiologia UmanaUniversità di ParmaParmaItaly

Personalised recommendations