Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 109, Issue 4, pp 479–493 | Cite as

Possible role of amphibole in the origin of andesite: some experimental and natural evidence

  • J. D. Foden
  • D. H. Green
Article

Abstract

Experiments in the system high-A1 basalt (HAB)-water have been conducted in the melting range at pressures between 1 atm. and 10 kbar, defining the amphibole stability field and the composition of liquids which coexist with this amphibole. Plagioclase is the anhydrous liquidus phase between 1 atm. and 10 kbar but in the hydrous runs this role is taken by olivine at <7 kbar and then by clinopyroxene at higher pressures. Because amphibole is never on the high-A1 basalt liquidus it is not likely that andesite is derived from primary basalt by pure fractional crystallisation, although as we discuss, other mechanisms including equilibrium crystallisation might implicate amphibole. If primary basaltic magma undergoes closed-system equilibrium crystallisation, then the amphibole field will be intersected at between 50 and 100°C below the liquidus. The compositions of melts coexisting with amphibole alone do not match those of any of the natural andesite or dacitic lavas associated with the particular high-A1 basalt investigated. Like natural andesites, they become rapidly silica enriched, but they also become far more depleted in TiO2 and MgO. However, the compositions of liquids lying directly on the divariant amphibole-out reaction zone, where amphibole +liquid coexist with clinopyroxene or olivine (±plagioclase), do resemble those of naturally occurring low-silica andesites. With increasing temperature pargasitic amphibole breaks down via incongruent melting reactions over a narrow temperature range to form a large volume of relatively low-silica basaltic andesite liquid and a crystalline assemblage dominated by either clinopyroxene or olivine. Our important conclusion is that basaltic andesite liquid will be the product of reaction between cooling, hydrous mafic liquid and anhydrous ferromagnesian phases. The solid reactants could represent earlier cumulates from the same or different magma batches, or they could be peridotite wall-rock material. Because the amphibole-out boundary coexisting with liquid is one of reaction, it will not be traversed so long as the phases on the high temperature side remain. Thus, the assemblage amphibole+clinopyroxene±olivine±plagioclase+liquid is one in which the liquid is buffered (within limits), and results reported here indicate that this buffering generates melts of low-silica andesite composition. When tapped to lower pressures these liquids will rise, eventually to fractionate plagioclase-rich assemblages yielding silicarich andesite and dacite melts. Conversely, the partial melting of hornblende pyroxenite, hornblende peridotite or hornblende gabbro can also yield basaltic andesite liquids. The phase relationships suggested by these experiments are discussed in the light of naturally occurring phenocryst and xenolith assemblages from the east Sunda Arc. Primary magmatic additions to the lithosphere of volcanic arcs are basaltic and voluminous upper crustal andesite in these terranes, complemented by mafic and ultramafic crystalline deposits emplaced in the lower crust or close to the Moho. Together these components constitute total arc growth with a basaltic composition and represent the net accreted contribution to continental growth.

Keywords

Olivine Equilibrium Crystallisation Hornblende Gabbro Pargasitic Amphibole Amphibole Stability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen JC, Boettcher AL (1978) Amphiboles in andesite and basalt: II. Stability as a function of P-T-fO2. Am Mineral 63:1074–1087Google Scholar
  2. Aoki K (1971) Petrology of mafic inclusions from Itinome-gata, Japan. Contrib Mineral Petrol 30:314–331Google Scholar
  3. Areulus RJ, Wills K (1980) The petrology of plutonic blocks and inclusions from the Lesser Antilles arc. J Petrol 21:743–799Google Scholar
  4. Baker D (1987) Depths and water content of magma chambers in the Aleutian and Mariana island arc. Geology 15:496–499Google Scholar
  5. Baker DR, Eggler DH (1983) Fractionation paths of Atka (Aleutians) high-alumina basalts: Constraints from phase relations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 18:387–404Google Scholar
  6. Balesta ST, Farberov AI, Smirnov VS, Tarakanovsky AA, Zubin MI (1977) Deep crustal structure of the Kamchatkan volcanic regions. Bull Volcanol 40:260–266Google Scholar
  7. Cawthorn GR (1976) Melting relations in part of the system CaO−MgO−Al2O3−SiO2−Na2O−H2O under 5 kb. pressure. J Petrol 17:44–76Google Scholar
  8. Cawthorn GR, O'Hara MJ (1976) Amphibole fractionation in calc alkaline magma genesis. Am J Sci 276:309–329Google Scholar
  9. Conrad J, Kay R (1984) Ultramafic and mafic inclusions from Adak island: crystallisation history and implications for the nature of primary magmas and crustal evolution in the Aleutian arc. J Petrol 25:88–125Google Scholar
  10. Crawford AJ, Falloon TJ, Eggins S (1987) The origin of island arc high-alumina basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:417–430Google Scholar
  11. Dana Johnston A (1986) Anhydrous P-T phase relations of nearprimary high-alumina basalt from the South Sandwich islands. Contrib Mineral Petrol 92:368–382Google Scholar
  12. Debari S, Kay SM, Kay RW (1987) Ultramafic xenoliths from Adagdak volcano, Adak, Aleutian islands, Alaska: Deformed igneous cumulates from the Moho of an island arc. J Geol 95:329–341Google Scholar
  13. Delong SE Hodges FN, Arculus RJ (1975) Ultramafic and mafic inclusions, Kanaga island, Alaska and occurrence of alkaline rocks in island arcs. J Geol 83:721–736Google Scholar
  14. Duncan RA, Green DH (1987) The genesis of refractory melts in the formation of oceanic crust. Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:326–342Google Scholar
  15. Eggler DH (1972) Amphibole stability in H2O-undersaturated calcalkaline melts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 15:28–34Google Scholar
  16. Eggler DH (1973) Principles of melting of hydrous phases in silicate melts. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 72:491–495Google Scholar
  17. Falloon TJ, Green DH (1986) Glass inclusions in magnesian olivine phenocrysts from Tonga, evidence for highly refractory parental magmas in the Tongan arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett 81:95–103Google Scholar
  18. Foden JD (1983) The petrology of the calcalkaline lavas of Rindjani volcano, East Sunda Arc: a model for island arc petrogenesis. J Petrol 24:98–130Google Scholar
  19. Foden JD, Varne R (1980) The petrology and tectonic setting of Quaternary-Recent volcanic centres of Lombok and Sumbawa, Sunda Arc Chem Geol 30:201–226Google Scholar
  20. Foden JD, Varne R (1983) Arc ankaramites, Sangeang Api xenoliths and cordilleran ultramafic to dioritic intrusive complexes: an updated concept of arc growth and development. Abst 6th Aust Geol Conven, Canberra 153–154Google Scholar
  21. Gill JB (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Green DH (1976) Experimental testing of ‘equilibrium’ partial melting of peridotite under water-saturated, high-pressure conditions. Can Mineral 14:255–268Google Scholar
  23. Green TH (1982) Anatexis of mafic crust and high pressure crystallisation of andesites. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesite: Orogenic andesites and related rocks. Wiley, Chichester, pp 465–487Google Scholar
  24. Gust DA, Perfit MR (1987) Phase relations of a high-Mg basalt from the Aleutian island arc: implications for primary island arc basalts and high-Al basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:7–18Google Scholar
  25. Helz RT (1982) Phase relationships and compositions of amphiboles produced in studies of the melting behaviour of rocks. In: Veblen DR, Ribbe PH (eds) Amphiboles: petrology and experimental phase relations. Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 9B. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington DC, pp 279–346Google Scholar
  26. Holloway JR (1973) The system pargasite H2O−CO2: a model for melting of a hydrous mineral with a mixed-volatile fluid. I. Experimental results to 8 kb. Geochem Cosmochim Acta 37:651–666Google Scholar
  27. Holloway JR, Burnham CW (1972) Melting relations of basalt with equilibrium water pressure less than total pressure. J Petrol 13:1–29Google Scholar
  28. Irvine TN (1974) Petrology of Duke Island ultramafic complex, south eastern Alaska. Mem Geol Soc Am 138Google Scholar
  29. Kay SM, Kay RW (1985) Role of crustal cumulates and the oceanic crust in the formation of the lower crust of the Aleutian arc. Geology 13:461–464Google Scholar
  30. Keen CE (1985) The dynamics of rifting: deformation of the lithosphere by active and passive driving forces. Geophys J R Astron Soc 80:95–120Google Scholar
  31. Kushiro I (1972) Effect of water on the composition of magmas formed at high pressures. J Petrol 13:311–334Google Scholar
  32. Lewis JF (1973) Petrology of ejected plutonic blocs of the Soufriere volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies. J Petrol 14:81–112Google Scholar
  33. McKenzie D (1984) The generation and compaction of partially molten rock. J Petrol 25:713–765Google Scholar
  34. McKenzie D, Bickle MJ (1988) The volume and composition of melt generated by extension of the lithosphere. J Petrol 29:625–679Google Scholar
  35. Murray CG (1972) Zoned ultramafic complexes of the Alaskan type: Feeder pipes of andesitic volcanoes. Mem Geol Soc Am. 132:313–335Google Scholar
  36. Nicholls IA (1974) Liquids in equilibrium with peridotitic mineral assemblages at high water pressures. Contrib Mineral Petrol 45:289–316Google Scholar
  37. Nicholls IA, Ringwood AE (1973) Effects of water on olivine stability in tholeiite and the production of silica-saturated magmas in the island arc environment. J Geol 81:285–300Google Scholar
  38. Peacock MA (1931) Classification of igneous rock series. J Geol 39:54–67Google Scholar
  39. Ramsay WRH, Crawford AJ, Foden JD (1984) Field setting, mineralogy, chemistry and genesis of arc picrites, New Georgia, Solomon Islands. Contrib Mineral Petrol 88:386–402Google Scholar
  40. Ringwood AE (1974) The petrological evolution of island arc systems. J Geol Soc London 130:183–204Google Scholar
  41. Spear FS, Kimball KL (1984) RECAMP-a FORTRAN IV program for estimating Fe3+ contents of amphiboles. Computers of Geoscience 10:317–325Google Scholar
  42. Tatsumi Y, Sakuyama M, Fukuyama H, Kushiro I (1983) Generation of arc basalt magmas and thermal structure of the mantle wedge in subduction zones. J Geophys Res 88:5815–5825Google Scholar
  43. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Utnasin VK Abdurakhimov AL, Anasov GI, Balesta ST, Budyanskiy Yu A, Markhinin Ye K, Fedorenko VI (1975) Deep structure of Klyuchevskoy group volcanoes and problem of magmatic hearths. Int Geol Rev 17:791–806Google Scholar
  45. Varne R, Foden J (1986) Geochemical and isotopic systematics of eastern Sunda arc volcanics: Implications for mantle sources and mantle mixing processes. In: Wezel F-C (ed) The Origin of Arcs. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 159–189Google Scholar
  46. Wheller GE, Varne R, Foden JD, Abbott MJ (1987) Geochemistry of Quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas, J Volcanol Geotherm Res 32:137–160Google Scholar
  47. Yoder HS, Tilley CE (1962) Origin of basalt magmas: an experimental study of natural and synthetic rock systems. J Petrol 3:342–532Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Foden
    • 1
  • D. H. Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations