Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 57, Issue 7, pp 512–529 | Cite as

Sedimentology of the Krakatau 1883 submarine pyroclastic deposits

  • C. W. MandevilleEmail author
  • S. Carey
  • H. Sigurdsson
Original Paper

Abstract

The majority of tephra generated during the paroxysmal 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano, Indonesia, was deposited in the sea within a 15-km radius of the caldera. Two syneruptive pyroclastic facies have been recovered in SCUBA cores which sampled the 1883 subaqueous pyroclastic deposit. The most commonly recovered facies is a massive textured, poorly sorted mixture of pumice and lithic lapilli-to-block-sized fragments set in a silty to sandy ash matrix. This facies is indistinguishable from the 1883 subaerial pyroclastic flow deposits preserved on the Krakatau islands on the basis of grain size and component abundances. A less common facies consists of well-sorted, planarlaminated to low-angle cross-bedded, vitric-enriched silty ash. Entrance of subaerial pyroclastic flows into the sea resulted in subaqueous deposition of the massive facies primarily by deceleration and sinking of highly concentrated, deflated components of pyroclastic flows as they traveled over water. The basal component of the deposit suggests no mixing with seawater as inferred from retention of the fine ash fraction, high temperature of emplacement, and lack of traction structures, and no significant hydraulic sorting of components. The laminated facies was most likely deposited from low-concentration pyroclastic density currents generated by shear along the boundary between the submarine pyroclastic flows and seawater. The Krakatau deposits are the first well-documented example of true submarine pyroclastic flow deposition from a modern eruption, and thus constitute an important analog for the interpretation of ancient sequences where subaqueous deposition has been inferred based on the facies characteristics of encapsulating sedimentary sequences.

Key words

Facies Grain size Components Pyroclastic flows Subaerial Emplacement process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Branney MJ (1991) Eruption and depositional facies of the Whorneyside Tuff Formation, English Lake District: an exceptionally large-magnitude phreatoplinian eruption. Geol Soc Am Bull 103:886–897Google Scholar
  2. Carey S (1991) Transport and deposition of tephra by pyroclastic flows and surges In: Fisher RV, Smith G (eds.) Sedimentation in volcanic-settings. SEPM Spec Publ 45:39–57Google Scholar
  3. Carey SN, Sigurdsson H (1980) The Roseau ash: deep-sea tephra deposits from a major eruption on the Island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles arc. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:67–86Google Scholar
  4. Carey SN, Sigurdsson H, Mandeville C, Bronto S (1996) Pyroclastic flows and surges over water: an example from the 1883 Krakatau eruption. Bull Volcanol 57:493–511Google Scholar
  5. Cas R, Wright JV (1987) Volcanic successions, modern and ancient. Allen and Unwin, Winchester, MassGoogle Scholar
  6. Cas R, Wright JV (1991) Subaqueous pyroclastic flows and ignimbrites: an assessment. Bull Volcanol 53:357–380Google Scholar
  7. Cole RB, DeCelles PG (1991) Subaerial to submarine transitions in early Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits, southern San Joaquin basin, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 103:221–235Google Scholar
  8. Deplus C, Bonvalot S, Dahrin D, Diament M, Harjono H, Dubois J (1995) Inner structure of the Krakatau volcanic complex (Indonesia) from gravity bathymetry data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 64:23–52Google Scholar
  9. Druitt TH, Sparks RSJ (1982) A proximal ignimbrite breccia facies on Santorini, Greece. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 13:147–171Google Scholar
  10. Druitt TH, Bacon C (1986) Lithic breccia and ignimbrite erupted during collapse of Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 29:1–32Google Scholar
  11. Effendi AC, Sukhyar R, Bronto S (1986) Geologic map of Krakatau Volcano Complex Sunda Strait, Lampung Province. Volcanological Survey of IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Escher BG (1919) Veranderingen in de Krakatau Groep na 1908. In: Handelingen Eerste Nederlandsch-Indisch Natuuwetenschappelik Congres, Weltevreden, pp 198–219Google Scholar
  13. Fierstein J, Nathanson M (1992) Another look at the calculation of fallout tephra volumes. Bull Volcanol 54:156–167Google Scholar
  14. Folk RL (1974) Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill Publishing Co, Austin, TexasGoogle Scholar
  15. Francis EH, Howells MF (1973) Transgressive welded ash-flow tuffs among the Ordovician sediments of NE Snowdonia. J Geol Soc Lond 129:621–641Google Scholar
  16. Francis PW, Self S (1983) The eruption of Krakatau. Sci Am 249:172–187Google Scholar
  17. Hampton MA (1972) The role of subaqueous debris flows in generating turbidity currents. J Sedimentol Petrol 42:775–793Google Scholar
  18. Howells MF, Leveridge BE, Addison R, Evans CDR, Nutt MJC (1979) The Capel Curig volcanic formation, Snowdonia, North Wales; variations in ash-flow tuffs related to emplacement environment. In: Harris AL, Holland CH, Leake BE (eds) The Caledonides of the British Isles reviewed. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 8:611–618Google Scholar
  19. Howells MF, Campbell DG, Reedman AJ (1985) Isolated pods of subaqueous welded ash-flow tuff: a distal facies of the Capel Curig volcanic formation (Ordovician), North Wales. Geol Mag 122:175–180Google Scholar
  20. Inman DL (1952) Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments. J Sedimentol Petrol 22:125–145Google Scholar
  21. Judd JW (1888) On the volcanic phenomena of the eruption, and on the nature and distribution of the ejected materials. In: Symons GJ (ed) The eruption of Krakatoa, and subsequent phenomena. Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society, Trubner and Co, London, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  22. Kano K (1990) An ash-flow tuff emplaced is shallow water, Early Miocene Koura formation, southwest Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 40:1–9Google Scholar
  23. Kienle J, Kowalik Z, Murty TS (1987) Tsunamis generated by eruptions form Mount St. Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Science 236:1442–1447Google Scholar
  24. LaCroix A (1904) La montagne Pelée et ses éruptions. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  25. Mandeville CW (1995) Submarine pyroclastic deposits: implications for pyroclastic flow/seawater, interactions and volatile discharge during explosive volcanic eruptions. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode IslandGoogle Scholar
  26. Mandeville C, Carey S, Sigurdsson H (1991) Lithology, grain size and facies characteristics of submarine pyroclastic flow deposits from the 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano, Indonesia. EOS 72 (17):296Google Scholar
  27. Mandeville C, Carey S, Sigurdsson H, King J (1994) Paleomagnetic evidence for high temperature emplacement of the 1883 subaqueous pyroclastic flows from Krakatau volcano, Indonesia. J Geophys Res 99:9487–9504Google Scholar
  28. Mandeville C, Carey S, Sigurdsson H (manuscript submitted) Magma mixing, fractional crystallization, and volatile discharge during the 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano, Indonesia. J Volcanol Geotherm ResGoogle Scholar
  29. McCoy FW, Cornell W (1990) Volcaniclastic sediments in the Tyrrhenian Basin. In: Kastens KA, Mascle J et al. (eds) 1990 Troc ODP, Sci Results, Tyrrhenian Sea, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program) 107:291–305Google Scholar
  30. McLeod N (1884) De uitbarsting van de Krakatau Tijdschrift van het Koniklijk Nederlansch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap (series 2) 1:184–191Google Scholar
  31. McPhie J (1986) Primary and redeposited facies from a large-magnitude, rhyolitic, phreatomagmatic eruption: Cana Creek Tuff, Late Carboniferous, Australia. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 28:319–350Google Scholar
  32. Moyer TC, Swanson DA (1987) Secondary hydroeruptions in pyroclastic-flow deposits: examples from Mount St. Helens. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 32:299–319Google Scholar
  33. Orton GJ (1988) A spectrum of Middle Ordovician fan deltas and braidplain deltas: a consequence of varying fluvial clastic input. In: Nemec W, Steel R (eds) Fan deltas: sedimentology and tectonic settings. Blackie and Son, Glasgow, pp 23–49Google Scholar
  34. Sarna-Wojcicki AM, Shipley S, Waitt RB Jr, Dzurisin D, Wood SH (1981) Areal distribution, thickness, mass, volume, and grain size of air-fall ash from the six major eruptions of 1980. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:577–600Google Scholar
  35. Self S (1983) Large-scale phreatomagmatic silicic volcanism: a case study from New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:433–469Google Scholar
  36. Self S (1992) Krakatau revisited: the course of events and interpretation of the 1883 eruption. Geo Journal 28–2:109–121Google Scholar
  37. Self S, Rampino M (1981) The 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Nature 292:699–704Google Scholar
  38. Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ, Carey S, Huang TC (1980) Volcanogenic sedimentation in the Lesser Antilles arc. J. Geol 88:523–540Google Scholar
  39. Sigurdsson H, Carey S (1989) Plinian and co-ignimbrite tephra fall from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano. Bull Volcanol 51:243–270Google Scholar
  40. Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Mandeville C (1991a) Sybmarine pyroclastic flows of the 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano. Natl Geogr Res Explor 7 (3):310–327Google Scholar
  41. Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Mandeville C, Bronto S (1991b) Pyroclastic flows of the 1883 Krakatau eruption. EOS 72, 377:380–381Google Scholar
  42. Simkin T, Fiske R (1983) Krakatau 1883 the volcanic eruption and its effects. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  43. Sparks RSJ (1976) Grain size variations in ignimbrites and implications for the transport of pyroclastic flows. Sedimentology 23:147–188Google Scholar
  44. Sparks RSJ, Walker GPL (1977) The significance of vitric-enriched air-fall layers associated with crystal-enriched ignimbrites. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2:329–341Google Scholar
  45. Sparks RSJ, Huang TC (1980) The volcanological significance of deep-sea ash layers associated with ignimbrites. Geol Mag 117:425–436Google Scholar
  46. Stehn CE (1929) The geology and volcanism of the Krakatau group. Proc Fourth Pacific Science Congr (Batavia), pp 1–55Google Scholar
  47. Swanson SE, Kienle J (1988) The 1986 eruption of Mt St. Augustine: field test of a hazard evaluation. J Geophys Res 93:4500–4520Google Scholar
  48. Symons GJ (1988) The eruption of Krakatoa, and subsequent phenomena. Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society. Trubner and Co, London, pp 1–494Google Scholar
  49. Triola M (1989) Elementary statistics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., pp 1–800Google Scholar
  50. Verbeek RDM (1885) Krakatau. Landsrukkerij, BataviaGoogle Scholar
  51. Walker GPL (1971) Grain-size characteristics of pyroclastic deposits. J Geol 79:696–714Google Scholar
  52. Walker GPL (1972) Crystal concentration in ignimbrites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 36:135–146Google Scholar
  53. Walker GPL (1983) Ignimbrite types and ignimbrite problems. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:65–88Google Scholar
  54. Walker GPL (1985) Origin of coarse lithic breccias near ignimbrite source vents. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 25:157–171Google Scholar
  55. Walker GPL, Heming RF, Wilson CJN (1980) Low-aspect ignimbrites. Nature 283:286–287Google Scholar
  56. Westerveld J (1952) Quaternary volcanism on Sumatra. Geol Soc Am Bull 63:561–594Google Scholar
  57. Wharton WJL (1888) On the seismic sea waves caused by the eruption of Krakatoa August 26th and 27th, 1883. In: Symons GJ (ed) The eruption of Krakatoa, and subsequent phenomenon. Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society. Trubner and Co, London, pp 1–494Google Scholar
  58. Whitham AG (1989) The behavior of subaerially produced pyroclastic flows in a subaqueous environment: evidence from the Roseau eruption, Dominica, West Indies. Marine Geol 86:27–40Google Scholar
  59. Woods AW, Wohletz K (1991) Dimensions and dynamics of coignimbrite eruption columns. Nature 350:225–227Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansettUSA

Personalised recommendations