Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 302–319 | Cite as

A comparison of rift-zone tectonics in Iceland and Hawaii

  • Allan M Rubin
Article

Abstract

Observations of eroded volcanic rift zones indicate that dikes in Iceland are typically several times thicker than those in Hawaii. Geodetic and seismic observations of active rifts, however, suggest that dike heights in the two regions are similar. Provided the elastic properties of the rift zones are the same, this implies that dikes are intruded with higher driving pressures (magma pressure minus compressive stress perpendicular to the dike plane) in Iceland than Hawaii. A second major difference between the two regions is the greater prevalence of large normal fault scarps in rift zones in Iceland. From this it can be infered that a lower percentage of dikes breach the surface in Iceland than in Hawaii. Thus, although dikes in Iceland are intruded with higher driving pressures, they possess lower absolute magma pressures than in Hawaii. These differences can be interpreted in terms of the tectonic settings in the two regions. In Iceland, a steady remote extension reduces the horizontal stress perpendicular to the rift zone, allowing dikes to be intruded with low absolute pressures but high driving pressures when magma becomes available. In Hawaii, a more continuous magma supply on the timescale over which the dike-induced stresses are relaxed, and perhaps a greater role for intrusions in driving long-term rift extension, ensure that the rift-compressive stress is not relaxed significantly before the next dike is intruded. Thus the magma pressure must be nearly sufficient for eruption in order for intrusion to occur. If the mechanism for relaxing the rift-compressive stress were less efficient still, then an even higher percentage of dikes would erupt, and at times the rift zone trend could become an unfavorable orientation for dike intrusion. Such might be the case at Mauna Loa, which lacks large rift-zone faults and fissures and possesses numerous radial vents outside its two main rift zones.

Keywords

Rift Zone Fault Scarp Magma Pressure Dike Intrusion Volcanic Rift 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ando M (1979) The Hawaii earthquake of November 29, 1975: low-dip-angle faulting due to forceful injection of magma. J Geophys Res 84:7616–7626Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson BK, Meredith PG (1987) Experimental fracture mechanics data for rocks and minerals. In: Atkinson BK (ed) Fracture mechanics of rock. Academic Press, London, pp 1–534Google Scholar
  3. Beblo M, Bjornsson A, Arnason K, Stein B, Wolfgram P (1983) Electrical conductivity beneath Iceland — Constraints imposed by magnetotelluric results on temperature, partial melt, crust and mantle structure. J Geophys 53:16–23Google Scholar
  4. Becker K, Von Herzen RP, Francis TJG, Anderson RN, Honnorez J, Adamson AC, Alt JC, Emmermenn R, Kempton PD, Kinoshita H, Laverne C, Mottl MJ, Newmark RL (1982) In situ electrical resistivity and bulk porosity of the oceanic crust Costa Rica Rift. Nature 300:594–598Google Scholar
  5. Bieniawski ZT (1978) Determining rock mass deformability: Experience from case histories. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 15:237–247Google Scholar
  6. Birch F (1966) Compressibility; elastic constants. Handbook of physical constants. GSA Memoir 97:97–173Google Scholar
  7. Bjornsson A (1985) Dynamics of crustal rifting in Iceland. J Geophys Res 90:10 151–10 162Google Scholar
  8. Bjornsson A, Johnsen G, Sigurdsson S, Thorbergsson G, Tryggvason E (1979) Rifting of the plate boundary in north Iceland 1975–1978. J Geophys Res 84:3029–3038Google Scholar
  9. Brandsdotir B, Einarsson P (1979) Seismic activity associated with the September 1977 deflation of Krafla volcano in north-eastern Iceland. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 6:197–212Google Scholar
  10. Byerlee JD (1978) Friction of rocks. Pageoph 116:615–626Google Scholar
  11. Caristan Y (1982) The transition from high temperature creep to fracture in Maryland Diabase. J Geophys Res 87:6781–6790Google Scholar
  12. Crosson RS, Endo ET (1982) Focal mechanisms and locations of earthquakes in the vicinity of the 1975 Kalapana earthquake aftershock zone 1970–1979: Implications for tectonics of the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, island of Hawaii. Tectonics 1:495–542Google Scholar
  13. Davis PM (1976) The computed piezomagnetic anomaly field for Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geomag Geoelec 28:113–122Google Scholar
  14. DeGraff JM (1987) Mechanics of columnar joint formation in igneous rocks PhD thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, pp 1–221Google Scholar
  15. Delaney PT (1988) Steady widespread deformation of Kilauea Volcano. EOS Am Geophys Union Trans 69:1433Google Scholar
  16. Dieterich JH (1988) Growth and persistence of Hawaiian volcanic rift zones. J Geophys Res 93:4258–4270Google Scholar
  17. Dvorak J, Okamura A (1987) Geometry of intrusions and eruptive fissures at Kilauea Volcano determined from trilateration measurements. Abstr vol, Hawaii Symposium on How Volcanoes Work, Hilo, Hawaii, p 58Google Scholar
  18. Dvorak J, Okamura AT, English TT, Koyanagi RY, Nakata JS, Sako MK, Tanigawa WT, Yamashita KM (1985) Mechanical response of the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to intrusive events along the rift zones. Tectonophysics 124:241–269Google Scholar
  19. Dzurisin D (1980) Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geophys Res Lett 7:925–928Google Scholar
  20. Dzurisin D, Koyanagi RY, English TT (1984) Magma supply and storage at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1956–1983. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 21:177–206Google Scholar
  21. Einarsson P, Bjornsson S (1979) Earthquakes in Iceland. Jokull 29:37–43Google Scholar
  22. Einarsson P, Brandsdottir B (1980) Seismological evidence for lateral magma intrusion during the July 1978 deflation of the Krafla volcano in NE-Iceland. J Geophys 47:160–165Google Scholar
  23. Fiske RS, Jackson DE (1972) Orientation and growth of Hawaiian volcanic rifts: the effect of regional structure and gravitational stresses. Proc R Soc London A 329:299–326Google Scholar
  24. Foulger GR (1988) Hengill triple junction, SW Iceland: 1. Tectonic structure and the spatial and temporal distribution of local earthquakes. J Geophys Res 93:13 493–13 506Google Scholar
  25. Fridleifsson IB (1979) Geothermal activity in Iceland. Jokull 29:47–56Google Scholar
  26. Gilbert GK (1880) Report on the geology of the Henry Mountains, 2nd edn. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, pp 1–170Google Scholar
  27. Goetz C, Evans B (1979) Stress and temperature in the bending lithosphere as constrained by experimental rock mechanics. Geophys J R Soc London 59:463–478Google Scholar
  28. Gudmundsson A (1980) The Vogar fissure swarm, Reykjanes Peninsula, SW-Iceland. Jokull 30:43–63Google Scholar
  29. Gudmundsson A (1983) Form and dimensions of dykes in eastern Iceland. Tectonophysics 95:295–307Google Scholar
  30. Gudmundsson A (1984) Tectonic aspects of dykes in north-western Iceland. Jokull 34:81–96Google Scholar
  31. Hill DP, Zucca JJ (1987) Geophysical constraints on the structure of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanic rift systems. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:903–918Google Scholar
  32. Holcomb RT (1987) Eruptive history and long-term behavior of Kilauea Volcano. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:261–350Google Scholar
  33. Jackson ED, Shaw HR, Bargar KE (1975) Calculated geochronology and stress field orientations along the Hawaiian Chain. Earth Planet Sci Lett 26:145–155Google Scholar
  34. Jaeger JC, Cook NGW (1979) Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, 3rd ed. New York, Chapman and Hall, pp 1–593Google Scholar
  35. Karson JA, Thompson G, Humphris SE, Edmond JM, Bryan WB, Brown JR, Winters AT, Pockalny RA, Casey JF, Campbell AC, Klinkhammer G, Palmer MR, Kinzler RJ, Sulanowska MM (1987) Along-axis variations in seafloor spreading in the MARK area. Nature 328:681–685Google Scholar
  36. Karpin TL, Thurber CH (1987) The relationship between earthquake swarms and magma transport: Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Pageoph 125:971–991Google Scholar
  37. Kirby SH (1983) Rheology of the lithosphere. Rev Geophys Space Phys 21:1458–1487Google Scholar
  38. Klein FW (1981) A linear crustal gradient model for south Hawaii. Bull Seism Soc Am 71:1503–1510Google Scholar
  39. Klein FW (1987) Earthquakes near Kilauea's vertical magma conduit between 7 and 36 km depth. Abstract volume, Hawaii Symposium on How Volcanoes Work. Hilo, Hawaii, p 58Google Scholar
  40. Klein FW, Koyanagi RY, Nakata JS, Tanigawa WR (1987) The seismicity of Kilauea's magma system. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:1019–1186Google Scholar
  41. Knight MD, Walker GPL (1988) Magma flow directions in dikes of the Koolau Complex, Oahu, determined from magnetic fabric studies. J Geophys Res 93:4301–4320Google Scholar
  42. Langenheim VAM, Clague DA (1987) The Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain Part II: Stratigraphic framework of volcanic rocks of the Hawaiian Islands. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:55–84Google Scholar
  43. Lawn BR, Wilshaw TR (1975) Fracture of brittle solids. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 1–204Google Scholar
  44. Lipman PW (1980) The southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa: Implications for structural evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes. Am J Sci 280-A:752–776Google Scholar
  45. Lockwood JP, Lipman PW (1987) Holocene eruptive history of Mauna Loa Volcano. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:509–535Google Scholar
  46. Macdonald KC (1982) Mid-ocean ridges: Fine-scale tectonic, volcanic, and hydrothermal processes within the plate boundary zone. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 10:155–190Google Scholar
  47. Marquart G, Jacoby W (1985) On the mechanism of magma injection and plate divergence during the Krafla rifting episode in northeast Iceland. J Geophys Res 90:10 178–10 192Google Scholar
  48. Marsh BD (1982) On the mechanics of igneous diapirism, stoping, and zone melting. Am J Sci 282:808–855Google Scholar
  49. McTigue DF, Mei CC (1981) Gravity-induced stresses near topography of small slope. J Geophys Res 86:9268–9278Google Scholar
  50. Palmason G (1971) Crustal Structure of Iceland from explosion seismology. Reykjavik, Soc Sci Islandica, pp 1–187Google Scholar
  51. Palmason G, Saemundsson K (1974) Iceland in relation to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 2:25–50Google Scholar
  52. Paris PC, Sih GC (1965) Stress analysis of cracks. In: ASTM Spec Tech Pub 381. Philadelphia, ASTM, pp 30–81Google Scholar
  53. Pollard DD, Delaney PT, Duffield WA, Endo ET, Okamura AT (1983) Surface deformation in volcanic rift zones. Tectonophysics 94:541–584Google Scholar
  54. Rubin AM, Pollard DD (1987) Origins of blade-like dikes in volcanic rifts zones. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:1449–1470Google Scholar
  55. Rubin AM, Pollard DD (1988) Dike-induced faulting in rift zones of Iceland and Afar. Geology 16:143–147Google Scholar
  56. Ryan MP (1987a) Elasticity and contractancy of Hawaiian olivine tholeite and its role in the stability and structural evolution of subcaldera magma reservoirs and rift systems. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:1395–1447Google Scholar
  57. Ryan MP (1987b) Neutral buoyancy and the mechanical evolution of magmatic systems, In: Mysen BO (ed) Magmatic processes: physicochemical principles. The Geochemical Society, University Park, Pa, pp 259–288Google Scholar
  58. Ryan MP (1988) The mechanics and three-dimensional internal structure of active magmatic systems: Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 93:4213–4248Google Scholar
  59. Ryan MP, Blevins JYK, Okamura AT, Koyanagi RY (1983) Magma reservoir subsidence mechanics: Theoretical summary and application to Kilauea volvano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 88:4147–4181Google Scholar
  60. Saemundsson K (1979) Outline of the geology of Iceland. Jokull 29:7–28Google Scholar
  61. Sigurdsson H, Sparks SRJ (1978) Lateral magma flow within rifted Icelandic crust. Nature 274:126–130Google Scholar
  62. Speight JM, Skelhorn RR, Sloan T, Knapp RJ (1982) The dyke swarms of Scotland. In: Sutherland DS (ed) Igneous rocks of the British Isles. Wiley, New York, pp 449–459Google Scholar
  63. Spudich P, Orcutt J (1980) Petrology and porosity of an oceanic crustal site: Results from wave form modeling of seismic refraction data. J Geophys Res 85:1409–1433Google Scholar
  64. Stearns HT (1947) Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Niihau, Hawaii. Territory of Hawaii Division of Hydrography Bull 12:1–53Google Scholar
  65. Stearns HT (1985) Geology of the State of Hawaii, 2nd ed. Palo Alto, Pacific Books, pp 1–335Google Scholar
  66. Stearns HT, Macdonald GA (1946) Geology and ground-water resources of the island of Hawaii. Territory of Hawaii Division of Hydrography Bull 9:1–363Google Scholar
  67. Swanson DA, Duffield WA, Fiske RS (1976) Displacement of the south flank of Kilauea Volcano: The result of forceful intrusion of magma into rift zones. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 963:1–39Google Scholar
  68. Thurber CH, Gripp AE (1988) Flexure and seismicity beneath the south flank of Kilauea Volcano and tectonic implications. J Geophys Res 93:4271–4278Google Scholar
  69. Tryggvason E (1974) Vertical crustal movement in Iceland. In: Kristjansson L (ed) Geodynamics of Iceland and the North Atlantic Area. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 241–262Google Scholar
  70. Tryggvason E (1981) Vertical component of ground deformation in southwest- and north-Iceland: Results of levelings in 1976 and 1980. Nordic Volcanological Institute Report 8102. Reykjavik, University of Iceland, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  71. Tryggvason E (1984) The widening of the Krafla fissure swarm during the 1975–1981 volcanotectonic episode. Bull Volcanol 47:47–69Google Scholar
  72. Walker GPL (1959) Geology of the Reydarfjordur area, eastern Iceland. Quarter J Geol Soc London 114:367–393Google Scholar
  73. Walker GPL (1960) Zeolite zones and dike distribution in relation to the structure of the basalts of eastern Iceland. J Geol 68:515–527Google Scholar
  74. Walker GPL (1987) The dike complex of Koolau Volcano, Oahu: Internal structure of a Hawaiian rift zone. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:961–993Google Scholar
  75. Walsh JB (1965) The effect of cracks in rocks on Poisson's ratio. J Geophys Res 70:5249–5257Google Scholar
  76. Weertman J (1971) Theory of water-filled crevasses in glaciers applied to vertical magma transport beneath ocean ridges. J Geophys Res 76:1171–1183Google Scholar
  77. Wendt K, Moller D, Ritter B (1985) Geodetic measurements of surface deformations during the present rifting episode in NE Iceland. J Geophys Res 90:10 163–10 172Google Scholar
  78. Whitmarsh RB (1978) Seismic refraction studies of the upper igneous crust in the North Atlantic and porosity estimates for layer 2. Earth Planet Sci Lett 37:451–464Google Scholar
  79. Zoback MD, Healy JH (1984) Friction, faulting, and in situ stress. Ann Geophys 2:689–698Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan M Rubin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations