Advertisement

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 39–43 | Cite as

Fecundity, egg weight and longevity in relation to multiple matings in females of the monarch butterfly

  • L. Svärd
  • C. Wiklund
Article

Summary

In many insects nutrients transferred by the male at mating are later incorporated into both the eggs and soma of the mated females. Accordingly, it has been suggested that insect females can use these male-derived nutrients for somatic maintenance and enhancement of their fecundity and fitness of their offspring. I this paper we tested the validity of these predictions by studying the longevity and reproductive output of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 times mated female monarchs Danaus plexippus, a nectar-feeding butterfly that is long-lived and strongly polyandrous and emerges as an adult without mature eggs. Females mated five times received ejaculates that corresponded to an average of 38% of their body weight at eclosion. However, we found that the number of times females had mated had no effect on their longevity, life-time fecundity, or egg weight. Although negative evidence should always be interpreted with caution, our study suggests that male-derived nutrients are less important for female longevity and reproductive output than are larval and adult food.

Keywords

Body Weight Reproductive Output Multiple Mating Negative Evidence Monarch Butterfly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker JF, Herman WS (1976) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on reproduction of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus. J Insect Physiol 22:1565–1568Google Scholar
  2. Boggs CL (1981a) Selection pressures affecting male nutrient investment at mating in Heliconiine butterflies. Evolution 35:931–940Google Scholar
  3. Boggs CL (1981b) Nutritional and life-history determinants of resource allocation in holometabolus insects. Am Nat 117:692–709Google Scholar
  4. Boggs CL, Gilbert LE (1979) Male contribution to egg production in butterflies: evidence for transfer of nutrients at mating. Science 206:83–84Google Scholar
  5. Boggs CL, Watt WB (1981) Population structure of pierid butterflies. IV. Genetic and physiological investment in offspring by male Colias. Oecologia 50:320–324Google Scholar
  6. Bowen BJ, Codd CG, Gwynne DT (1984) The katydid spermatophore (Orthoptera: Tettigonidae): Male nutritional investment and its fate in the mated female. Aust J Zool 32:23–31Google Scholar
  7. Butlin RK, Woodhatch CW, Hewitt GM (1987) Male spermatophore investment increases female fecundity in a grasshopper. Evolution 41:221–225Google Scholar
  8. Dixon CA, Erickson JM, Kellet DN, Rothschild M (1978) Some adaptations between Danaus plexippus and its food plant, with notes on Danaus chrysippus and Eploea core (Insecta: Lepidoptera). J Zool 185:437–467Google Scholar
  9. Drummond BC (1984) Multiple mating and sperm competition in the Lepidoptera. In: Smith RL (ed) Sperm competition and the evolution of animal mating systems. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunlap-Pianka HL (1979) Ovarian dynamics in Heliconius butterflies: correlations among daily oviposition rates, egg weights, and quantitative aspects of oogenesis. J Insect Physiol 25:741–749Google Scholar
  11. Dunlap-Pianka HL, Boggs CL, Gilbert LE (1977) Ovarian dynamics in Heliconiine butterflies: Programmed senescence versus eternal youth. Science 197:487–490Google Scholar
  12. Friedel T, Gillott C (1977) Contribution of male-produce proteins to vitellogenesis in Melanoplus sanguipes. J Insect Physiol 23:145–151Google Scholar
  13. Gilbert LE (1976) Postmating female odor in Heliconius butterflies: a male-contributed antiaphrodisiac. Science 193:419–420Google Scholar
  14. Greenfield MD (1982) The question of paternal investment in Lepidoptera: male-contributed proteins in Plodia interpunctella. Int J Invert Reproduc 5:323–330Google Scholar
  15. Gwynne DT (1984a) Male mating effort, confidence of paternity, and insect sperm competition. In: Smith RL (ed) Sperm competition and the evolution of animal mating systems. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Gwynne DT (1984b) Courtship feeding increases female reproductive success in bushcrickets. Nature 307:361–363Google Scholar
  17. Gwynne DT, Bowen BJ, Codd CG (1984) The function of the katydid spermatophore and its role in fecundity and insemination (Orthoptera: Tettigonidae). Aust J Zool 32:15–22Google Scholar
  18. Jones KN, Odendaal FJ, Erlich PR (1986) Evidence against the spermatophore as paternal investment in the checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas: Nymphalidae). am Midl Nat 116:1–6Google Scholar
  19. Labine PA (1968) The population biology of the butterfly Euphydryas editha. VIII. Oviposition and its relation to patterns of oviposition in other butterflies. Evolution 22:799–805Google Scholar
  20. Munger F, Harriss TT (1969) Laboratory production of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus. J Res Lepid 8:169–176Google Scholar
  21. Pliske TE (1973) Factors determining mating frequencies in some New World butterflies and skippers. Ann Ent Soc Amer 66:164–169Google Scholar
  22. Pliske TE (1975) Courtship behaviour of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Ann Ent Soc Amer 68:143–151Google Scholar
  23. Rothschild M (1978) Hell's angels. Anternna 2:38–39Google Scholar
  24. Rutowski RL (1984) Sexual selection and the evolution of butterfly mating behavior. J Res Lepid 23:125–142Google Scholar
  25. Rutowski RL, Newton M, Schaefer J (1983) Interspecific variation in the size of the nutrient investment made by male butterflies during copulation. Evolution 37:708–713Google Scholar
  26. Rutowski RL, Gilchrist GW, Terkanian B (1987) Female butterflies mated with recently mated males show reduced reproductive output. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 20:319–322Google Scholar
  27. Simmons LW (1988) The contribution of multiple mating and spermatophore consumption to the lifetime reproductive success of female field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). Ecol Entomol (in press)Google Scholar
  28. Sugawara Y (1979) Mating frequency in females of the small cabbage white, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Kontyu 47:335–339Google Scholar
  29. Svärd L (1985) Paternal investment in a monandrous butterfly, Pararge aegeria. Oikos 45:66–70Google Scholar
  30. Svärd L, Wiklund C (1988) Prolonged mating in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, and nightfall as a cue for sperm transfer. Oikos 51:351–354Google Scholar
  31. Thornhill R, Alcock J (1983) The evolution of insect mating systems. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Urquhart FA (1960) The monarch butterfly. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  33. Walker WF (1980) Sperm utilization strategies in nonsocial insects. Am Nat 115:780–799Google Scholar
  34. Wiklund C, Forsberg J (1985) Courtship and male discrimination between virgin and mated females in the Orange Tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines. Anim Behav 34:328–332Google Scholar
  35. Zalucki MP (1981) The effect of age and weather on egg laying in Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Res Popul Ecol 23:318–327Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Svärd
    • 1
  • C. Wiklund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations