Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 383–388

Developmental change in aggregation, defense and escape behavior of buckmoth caterpillars, Hemileuca lucina (Saturniidae)

  • Jennifer C. Cornell
  • Nancy E. Stamp
  • M. Deane Bowers
Article

Summary

Changes in response to attack and the tendency to aggregate were examined in the six larval instars of the buckmoth, Hemileuca lucina (Saturniidae). In response to simulation of attack by a parasitoid and of biting by a predator, early instars (I, II, and III) exhibited defensive behavior much more often than escape behaviors, whereas late instar larvae (IV, V, and VI) usually resorted to escape rather than defend themselves. The situations in which attacked larvae were most likely to stimulate other group members to respond were: second and third instar larvae thrashing in response to simulation of a parasitoid or headrearing in response to simulation of a biting predator; and fourth, fifth and sixth instar larvae dropping in response to either stimulus. An index of reaggregation indicated that first instar larvae had difficulty reaggregating; second, third and fourth instar larvae reaggregated quickly; and fifth and sixth larvae dispersed. As larvae developed, the change from predominantly defense to escape behaviors paralleled the decline in tendency to aggregate.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berenbaum MR (1984) Mantids and milkweed bugs: Efficacy of aposematic coloration against invertebrate predators. Am Midl Nat 111:64–68Google Scholar
  2. Blum MS (1981) Arthropod Defenses. Academic Press, New York, p 562Google Scholar
  3. Capinera JL (1980) A trail pheromone from silk produced by larvae of the range caterpillar, Hemileuca oliviae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), and observations on aggregation behavior. J Chem Ecol 6:655–664Google Scholar
  4. Casey TM, Hegel JR (1981) Caterpillar setae: insulation for an ectotherm. Science 214:1131–1133Google Scholar
  5. Dethier VG (1959) Food-plant distribution and density and larval dispersal as factors affecting insect populations. Can Entomol 112:731–738Google Scholar
  6. Eisner T (1971) Chemical defense against predation in arthropods. In: Sondheimer E, Simeone JB (eds) Chemical ecology. Academic Press, New York, pp 157–217Google Scholar
  7. Ferguson JF, Metcalf RL (1985) Cucurbitacins: plant-derived defensive compounds for diabroticites (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J Chem Ecol 11:311–318Google Scholar
  8. Fitzgerald TD (1976) Trail marking by larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar. Science 194:961–963Google Scholar
  9. Fitzgerald TD (1980) An analysis of daily foraging patterns of laboratory colonies of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), recorded photoelectrically. Can Entomol 112:731–738Google Scholar
  10. Ghent AW (1960) A study of the group-feeding behavior of larvae of the Jack Pine Sawfly, Neodiprion pratti banksianae Roh. Behaviour 16:110–148Google Scholar
  11. Heinrich B (1979) Foraging strategies of caterpillars: leaf damage and possible predator avoidance strategies. Oecologia (Berlin) 42:325–337Google Scholar
  12. Heinrich B (1981) Ecological and evolutionary perspectives. In: Heinrich B (ed) Insect thermoregulation. Wiley, New York, pp 235–302Google Scholar
  13. Honda K (1981) Larval osmeterial secretions of the swallowtails (Papilio). J Chem Ecol 7:1089–1113Google Scholar
  14. Iwao S, Wellington WG (1970) The influence of behavioral differences among tent-caterpillar larvae on predation by a pentatomid bug. Can J Zool 48:896–898Google Scholar
  15. Morris RF (1963) The effect of predator age and prey defense on the functional response of Podisus maculiventris Say to the density of Hyphantria cunea. Can Entomol 99:24–33Google Scholar
  16. Rausher MD (1979) Egg recognition: its advantage to a butterfly. Anim Behav 27:1034–1040Google Scholar
  17. Schultz JC (1983) Habitat selection and foraging tactics of caterpillars in heterogeneous trees. In: Denno RF, McClure MS (eds) Variable plants and herbivores in natural and managed systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 61–90Google Scholar
  18. Segerra-Carmona A, Barbosa P (1983) Nutrient content of four rosaceous hosts and their effects on development and fecundity of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Can J Zool 61:2868–2872Google Scholar
  19. Seymour RS (1974) Convective and evaporative cooling in sawfly larvae. J Insect Physiol 20:2447–2457Google Scholar
  20. Stamp NE (1982) Behavioral interactions of parasitoids and Baltimore checkerspot caterpillars, Euphydryas phaeton. Environ Entomol 11:100–104Google Scholar
  21. Stamp NE (1984a) Interactions of parasitoids and checkerspot caterpillars, Euphydryas spp. (Nymphalidae). J Res Lepid 23:2–18Google Scholar
  22. Stamp NE (1984b) Foraging behavior of tawny emperor caterpillars (Nymphalidae: Asterocampa clyton). J Lepid Soc 38:186–191Google Scholar
  23. Stamp NE (1986) Physical constraints of defense and response to invertebrate predators by pipevine caterpillars (Battus philenor: Papilionidae). J Lepid Soc 40:191–205Google Scholar
  24. Sullivan CR, Wellington WG (1953) The light reactions of larvae of the tent caterpillars, Malacosoma disstria Hbn., M. americanum (Fab.), and M. pluviale (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Can Entomol 85:297–310Google Scholar
  25. Suzuki N, Junimi Y, Uematsu S, Kobayashi K (1980) Changes in spatial distribution pattern during the larval stage of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Res Popul Ecol 22:273–283Google Scholar
  26. Tostowaryk W (1971) Relationship between parasitism and predation of diprionid sawflies. Ann Entomol Soc Am 64:1424–1427Google Scholar
  27. Tostowaryk W (1972) The effect of prey defense of the functional response of Podisus modestus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to densities of the sawflies Neodiprion swainei and N. pratti banksianae (Hymenoptera: Neodiprionidae). Can Entomol 104:61–69Google Scholar
  28. Tsubaki Y, Shiotsu Y (1982) Group feeding as a strategy for exploiting food resources in the burnet moth Pryeria sinica. Oecologia (Berlin) 55:12–20Google Scholar
  29. Zar JH (1984) Biostatistical analysis, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, p 718Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer C. Cornell
    • 1
  • Nancy E. Stamp
    • 2
  • M. Deane Bowers
    • 1
  1. 1.Museum of Comparative ZoologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesState University of New YorkBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations