Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 399–404 | Cite as

Perspectives on osteoporosis research: Its focus and some insights from a new paradigm

  • J. L. Ferretti
  • H. M. Frost
  • J. A. Gasser
  • W. B. High
  • W. S. S. Jee
  • C. Jerome
  • L. Mosekilde
  • D. D. Thompson


(1) Could future osteoporosis research begin to account for the things described in this editorial? (2) Could agencies that give grants to support that research begin to encourage that accounting? (3) Since the FDA guidelines have great influence on what osteoporosis research is done and not done, mitht revisions of the 1994 guidelines try to acknowledge those things?


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Albright F, Reifenstein EC Jr (1948) The parathyroid glands and metabolic bone disease. Selected studies. Williams and Wilkins Co, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Avioli LV (1993) The osteoporotic syndrome (3rd ed). Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jordan, A (1994) Hard Tissue Workshops, 1994. Sponsored by the University of Utah, Sun Valley Resort in Ketchum, IdahoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burr DB, Martin RB (1989) Errors in bone remodeling: toward a unified theory of metabolic bone disease. Am J Anat 186:1–31Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burr DB, Martin RB (1992) Mechanisms of bone adaptation to the mechanical environment. Triangle (Ciba-Geigy) 31:59–76Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frost HM (1995) Introduction to a new skeletal physiology, vols I, II. The Pajaro Group, Inc., Pueblo, COGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frost HM (1995) Osteoporoses: an owner's manual. The Pajaro Group, Inc., Pueblo, COGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frost HM (1995) Perspectives: on a “paradigm shift” developing in skeletal science. Calcif Tissue Int 56:1–4Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jee WSS, Frost HM (1992) Skeletal adaptations during growth. In: Triangle (Ciba Geigy) 31:77–88Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frost HM, Jee WSS (1994) Perspectives: a biomechanical model of the endochondral ossification mechanism. Anat Rec 240:435–446Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frost HM, Jee WSS (1994) Perspectives: applications of a biomechanical model of the endochondral ossification mechanism. Anat Rec 240:447–455Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kleerekoper M, Krane SM (1990) Clinical disorders of bone and mineral metabolism. Mary Ann Liebow, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kyle RF (1994) Fractures of the proximal part of the femur. J Bone Jt Surg 76A:924–950Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Melton LJ, Kan SH, Wahner HW, Riggs BL (1988) Lifetime fracture risk: an approach to hip fracture risk assessment based on bone mineral density and age. J Clin Epidemiol 10:985–994Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Melton LJ III, Chrischilles EA, Riggs BL (1992) How many women have osteoporosis? A perspective. J Bone Miner Res 7:1005–1010Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Riggs BL, Melton LJ (1988) Osteoporosis Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ross PD, Davis JW, Vogel JM, Wasnich RD (1990) A critical review of bone mass and the risk of fractures in osteoporoses. Calcif Tissue Int 46:149–161Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blount WP (1955) Fractures in children. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP (1991) Fractures in children 3rd ed, vol III. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP (1991) Fractures in adults 3rd ed, vols I, II. JB Lippincott Co, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nordin M, Frankel VH (1989) Basic biomechanics of the musculo-skeletal system. 2nd ed. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frost HM (1964) Laws of bone structure. Charles C Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frost HM (1986) Intermediary organization of the skeleton, vols. I. II. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Frost HM (1994) Wolff's Law and bone's structural adaptations to mechanical usage: an overview for clinicians. Angle Orthodont 64:187–212Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weinmann IP, Sicher H (1955) Bone and bones, 2nd ed. CV Mosby Co. St LouisGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Enlow DH (1963) Principles of bone remodeling. Charles C Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jee WSS (1989) The skeletal tissues. In: Weiss L (ed) Cell and tissue biology. A textbook of histology. Urban and Schwartzenberg. Baltimore, pp 211–259Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Solomon L (1966) Diametric growth of the epiphyseal plate. J Bone Jt Surg 48B:170–177Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sherman MS, Phemister DB (1947) The pathology of ununited fractures of the femoral neck of the femur. J Bone Jt Surg 29A:19–40Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boyce TM, Bloebaum RD (1993) Cortical aging differences and fracture implications for the human femoral neck. Bone 14:769–778Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frost HM (1990) Structural adaptations to mechanical usage (SATMU):3. The hyaline cartilage modeling problem. Anat Rec 226:423–432Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lin BY, Jee WSS, Chen MM, Ma YF, Ke HZ, Li XJ (1994) Mechanical loading modifies ovariectomy-induced cancellous bone loss. Bone Miner 25:199–210Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wronski TJ, Dann LM, Scott KS, Crooke LR (1989) Endocrine and pharmacological suppressors of bone turnover protect against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 125:810–816Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferretti JL, Vazquez SO, Delgado CJ, Capozza R, Cointry G (1992) Biphasic dose-response curves of cortisol effects on rat diaphyseal bone biomechanics. Calcif Tissue Int 50:49–54Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jee WSS, Ke HZ, Li XJ (1991) Long-term anabolic effects of prostaglandin-E2 on tibial diaphyseal bone in male rats. Bone Miner 15:33–35Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peng Z, Tuukkanen J, Vaananen HK (1994) Exercise can provide protection against bone loss and prevent the decrease in mechanical strength of femoral neck in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 9:1559–1564Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sogaard CH, Wronski TJ, McOsker JE, Mosekilde L (1994) The positive effect of parathyroid hormone on femoral neck strenght in ovariectomized rats is more pronounced than that of estrogen and bisphosphonates. Endocrinology 134:650–657Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frost HM (1989) Some effects of basic multicellular unit-based remodeling on photon absorptiometry of trabecular bone. Bone Miner 7:47–65Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kleerekoper M, Peterson EL, Nelson DA, Phillips E, Schork MA, Tilley BC, Parfitt AM (1991) A randomized trial of sodium fluoride as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int 1:155–161Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johnston CC Jr, Melton LJ III, Lindsay R, Eddy DM (1989) Clinical indications for bone mass measurements. J Bone Miner Res (suppl) 4:1–28Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Juhn A, Weiss A, Mendes D, Silbermann M (1991) Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density during maturation and aging of Wistar female rats. In: Jee WSS (ed) The aged rat model for bone biology studies. Cells Mater (suppl 1):19–24Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mazess RB (1987) Bone density in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 40:117–118Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cann CE, Genant HK, Kolb FO, Ettinger B (1985) Quantitative computed tomography for prediction of vertebral fracture risk. Bone 6:1–5Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Genant HK, Block JE, Steiger P, Glueer CC, Ettinger B, Harris ST (1989) Appropriate use of bone densitometry. Radiol 170:817–822Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Delmas PD (1993) Markers of bone formation and resorption. In: Favus MJ (ed) Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism; Raven Press, New York, pp 108–111Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Frost HM (1969) Tetracycline-based histological analysis of bone remodeling. Calcif Tissue Res 3:211–237Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    High WB (1988) Effects of orally administered prostaglandin E-2 on cortical bone turnover in dogs: a histomorphometric study. Bone 8:363–373Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kimmel DB, Jee WSS (1982) A quantitative histologic study of bone turnover in young adult Beagles. Anat Rec 203:31–45Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Recker RR (1983) Bone histomorphometry. Techniques and interpretation. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Melsen F, Mosekilde L (1981) The role of bone biopsy in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease. Orthop Clin N Am 12:571–603Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Melsen F, Mosekilde L, Eriksen EF, Charles P, Steinicke T (1989) In vivo hormonal effects on trabecular bone remodeling, osteoid mineralization, and skeletal turnover. In: Kleerekoper M, Krane S (eds) Clinical disorders of bone and mineral metabolism. Mary Ann Liebow, New York, pp 73–86Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Minaire P (1973) L'Osteoporose d'Immobilization. Donnees Biologiques et Histologiques Quantitatives. Thesis, Ediprim, Lyon, pp 1–122Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Frost HM (1977) A method of analysis of trabecular bone dynamics. In: Meunier PJ (ed) Bone histomorphometry/1976. Armour-Montagu, Paris, pp 445–475Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Turner CH, Burr DB (1993) Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: a tutorial. Bone 14:595–608Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Flora L, Hassing GS, Villanueva AR, Matthews C, Crouch M, Duncan H, Parfitt AM (1979) Comparative effects of disodium ethane hydroxydiphosphonate (EHDP) and disodium dichloromethane diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) on bone remodeling in adult Beagle dogs. Calcif Tissue Int (suppl) 27:A12Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Flora L, Hassing GSD, Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR (1980) Comparative skeletal effects of two diphosphonates in dogs. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 2:389–407Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Frost HM (1989) Transient-steady state phenomena in microdamage physiology: a proposed algorithm for lamellar bone. Calcif Tissue Int 44:367–381Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Frost HM (1966) Bone dynamics in osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Charles C Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Biewener AA (1993) Safety factors in bone strength. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):68–74Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Burr DB (1993) Remodeling and the repair of fatigue damage. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):75–81Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heaney RP (1993) Is there a role for bone quality in fragility fractures?. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):3–6Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Martin RB (1993) Aging and strength of bone as a structural material. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):34–40Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Parfitt AM (1993) Bone age, mineral density, and fatigue damage. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):82–86Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Recker RR (1993) Architecture and vertebral fracture. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl 1):139–142Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schnitzler CM (1993) Bone quality: a determinant for certain risk factors for bone fragility. Calcif Tissue Int 53(suppl):27–31Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mosekilde L, Kragstrup J, Richards A (1987) Compressive strength, ash wwight and volume of vertebral trabecular bone in experimental fluoris in pigs. Calcif Tissue Int 40:318–322Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Avioli LV, Gennari C (1993) Calcitonin therapy in osteoporotic syndromes. In: (ed) Avioli LV The osteoporotic syndrome, 3rd ed. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 140–147Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wuster C, Raue F, Meyer C, Bergmann M, Ziegler R (1992) Long-term excess of endogenous calcitonin in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma does not affects bone mineral density. J Endocrinol 134:141–147Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Frost HM, Jee WSS (1992) On the rat model of human osteopenias and osteoporoses. Bone Miner 18:227–236Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jee WSS (1991) The aged rat model for bone biology studies. Cells Mater (suppl 1)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Baron RR, Tross R, Vignery A (1984) Evidence of sequential remodeling in rat trabecular bone: morphology, dynamic histomorphometry, and changes during skeletal maturation. Anat Rec 208:137–145Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dempster DW, Cosman F, Parisien M, Schen V, Lindsay R (1993) Anabolic actions of parathroid hormone on bone. Endocrinol Rev 14:690–709Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hori M, Uzawa T, Morita L, Noda T, Takahashi H, Inoue J (1988) Effect of human parathyroid hormone [PTH (1–34)] on experimental osteopenia of rats induced by ovariectomy. Bone Miner 3:193–199Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Slovic DM, Rosenthal DI, Doppelt DH, Potts JR Jr, Daly MA, Campbell JA, Neer RM (1986) Restoration of spinal bone in osteoporotic men by treatment with human parathyroid hormone (1–34) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Bone Miner Res 1:377–381Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Takahashi HE, Tanizawa T, Hori M, Uzawa T (1991) Effect of intermittent administration of human parathyroid hormone (1–34) on experimental osteopenia of rats induced by ovariectomy. In: Jee WSS ed The rat model for bone biology studies. Calls and Mater (suppl 1):113–118Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Ferretti
    • 1
  • H. M. Frost
    • 2
  • J. A. Gasser
    • 3
  • W. B. High
    • 4
  • W. S. S. Jee
    • 5
  • C. Jerome
    • 6
  • L. Mosekilde
    • 7
  • D. D. Thompson
    • 8
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones MetabolicasBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgerySouthern Colorado ClinicPuebloUSA
  3. 3.Sandoz PharmaceuticalsBaselSwitzerland
  4. 4.Center for Magnetic ResonanceUniversity of Minnesota School of MedicineMinneapolis
  5. 5.University of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake City
  6. 6.Bowman Gray School of MedicineWinston-Salem
  7. 7.Institute of AnatomyUniversity of AarhusDenmark
  8. 8.Central Research DivisionPfizer, Inc.GrotonUSA

Personalised recommendations