Advertisement

Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 164, Issue 2, pp 124–129 | Cite as

Resting metabolism of helodermatid lizards: allometric and ecological relationships

  • D. D. Beck
  • C. H. Lowe
Article

Abstract

We measured metabolic rates at 15 and 25°C in 42 helodermatid lizards ranging in mass from 26 to 1616 g. No consistent repeatable daily rhythms of metabolism were detected. There were no significant differences in metabolic rates between the two species of Heloderma. The temperature coefficient for metabolism (Q10) was 3.0 between 15 and 25°C. The mass exponent for helodermatids (0.69) differed significantly from the among-species mass exponent of 0.80 for all squamates combined. However, adult Heloderma had a mass exponent of 0.80. Rates of metabolism of adult helodermatids were lower than those of other squamate reptiles, and at 15°C periods of apnea contributed to a further reduction in metabolic rate. Our finding that helodermatids have low SMRs supports the hypothesis that ecology is important in influencing metabolic rate, and that “reclusive” squamates have lower rates of metabolism than do nonreclusive species.

Key words

Metabolic rate Oxygen consumption Gilamonster Beaded lizard Heloderma 

Abbreviations

BM

body mass

ME

mass exponent

MR

metabolic rate(s)

RMR

resting metabolic rate(s)

SMR

standard metabolic rate(s)

Ta

ambient temperature

Tb

body temperature

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Sadoon MK (1991) Metabolic rate-temperature curves of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti, the miola snake, Malpolon moilensis, and the adder, Vipera berus. Comp Biochem Physiol 99A:119–122Google Scholar
  2. Al-Sadoon MK, Abdo NM (1992) Temperature and body mass effects on the metabolic rate of Acanthodactylus schmidti Weigmann (Reptilia: lacertidae). J Arid Environ 21:351–362Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RA, Karasov WH (1981) Contrasts in energy intake and expenditure in sit-and-wait and widely foraging lizards. Oecologia 49:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews RM, Pough FH (1985) Metabolism of squamate reptiles: allometric and ecological relationships. Physiol Zool 58:214–231Google Scholar
  5. Auffenberg W (1981) The behavioral ecology of the komodo monitor. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. Auffenberg W (1988) Gray's monitor lizard. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartholomew GA, Tucker VA (1964) Size, body temperature, thermal conductance, oxygen consumption, and heart rate in Australian varanid lizards. Physiol Zool 37:341–354Google Scholar
  8. Beaupre SJ (1993) An ecological study of oxygen consumption in the mottled rock rattlesnake, Crotalus lepidus lepidus, and the black-tailed rattlesnake, Crotalus molossus molossus, from two populations. Physiol Zool 66:437–454Google Scholar
  9. Beck DD (1990) Ecology and behavior of the Gila monster in southwestern Utah. J Herpetol 24:54–68Google Scholar
  10. Beck DD (1991) Physiological and behavioral consequences of reptilian life in the slow lane: ecology of beaded lizards and rattlesnakes. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck DD, Lowe CH (1991) Ecology of the beaded lizard Heloderma horridum, in a tropical dry forest in Jalisco, Mexico. J Herpetol 25:395–406Google Scholar
  12. Beck DD, Ramirez-Bautista A (1991) Combat behavior of the beaded lizard Heloderma h. horridum in Jalisco, Mexico. J Herpetol 25:481–484Google Scholar
  13. Bennett AF (1982) The energetics of reptilian activity. In: Gans C, Pough FH (eds) Biology of the Reptilia, vol 13. Academic Press, New York, pp 155–199Google Scholar
  14. Bennett AF, Dawson WR (1976) Metabolism. In: Gans C, Dawson WR (eds) Biology of the Reptilia, vol 5. Academic Press, New York, pp 127–223Google Scholar
  15. Bennett AF, Ruben JA (1979) Endothermy and activity in vertebrates. Science 206:649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bogert CM, Martin del Campo R (1956) The Gila monster and its allies. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 109:1–238Google Scholar
  17. Brody S (1945) Bioenergetics and growth. Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Campbell JA, Lamar WL (1989) The venomous reptiles of Latin America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Chappell MA, Ellis TM (1987) Resting metabolic rates in boid snakes: allometric relationships and temperature effects. J Comp Physiol B 157:227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cragg PA (1978) Oxygen consumption in the lizard genus Lacerta in relation to diel variation, maximum activity and body weight. J Exp Biol 77:33–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dryden G, Green B, King D, Losos J (1991) Water and energy turnover in a small monitor lizard, Varanus acanthurus. Austr Wildl Res 17:641–646Google Scholar
  22. Dunson WA, Bramham CR (1981) Evaporative water loss and oxygen consumption of three small lizards from the Florida Keys: Sphaerodactylus cinereus, S. notatus, and Anolis sagrei. Physiol Zool 54:253–259Google Scholar
  23. Estes R, Queiroz K de, Gauthier J (1988) Phylogenetic relationships within squamata. In: Estes R, Pregill G (eds) Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families: essays commemorating Charles L. Camp. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp 119–281Google Scholar
  24. Feder ME (1987) Effect of thermal acclimation on locomotor energetics and locomotor performance in a tropical salamander, Bolitoglossa subpalmata. Physiol Zool 60:18–26Google Scholar
  25. Feder ME, Feder JH (1981) Diel variation of oxygen consumption in three species of Philippine gekkonid lizards. Copeia 1981:204–209Google Scholar
  26. Fusari M (1984) Temperature responses of standard aerobic metabolism by the California legless lizard, Anniellapulchra. Comp Biochem Physiol 77A:97–102Google Scholar
  27. Garland T Jr (1993) Locomotor performance and activity metabolism of Cnemidophorus tigris in relation to natural behavior. In: Wright JW, Vitt LJ (eds) Biology of whiptail lizards (genus Cnemidophorus). Oklahoma Mus Nat Hist, Norman, Oklahoma, USA, pp 163–210Google Scholar
  28. Hill RW (1972) Determination of oxygen consumption by use of the paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. J Appl Physiol 33:261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Heusner AA (1982) Energy metabolism and body size. I. Is the 0.75 mass exponent of Kleiber's equation a statistical artifact? Respir Physiol 48:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. John-Alder HB, Lowe CH, Bennett AF (1983) Thermal dependence of locomotory energetics and aerobic capacity of the gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). J Comp Physiol 151:119–126Google Scholar
  31. John-Alder HB, Garland T Jr, Bennett AF (1986) Locomotory capacities, oxygen consumption, and the cost of locomotion of the shingle-back lizard (Trachydosaurus rugosus). Physiol Zool 59:523–531Google Scholar
  32. Kamel S, Gatten RE Jr (1983) Aerobic and anaerobic activity metabolism of limbless and fossorial reptiles. Physiol Zool 56:419–429Google Scholar
  33. Losos JB, Greene HW (1988) Ecological and evolutionary implications of diet in monitor lizards. Biol J Linn Soc 35:379–407Google Scholar
  34. Loumbourdis NS, Hailey A (1985) Activity metabolism of the lizard Agama stellio stellio. Comp Biochem Physiol 82A:687–691Google Scholar
  35. Lowe CH, Hinds DS, Lardner PJ, Justice KE (1967) Natural freerunning period in vertebrate animal populations. Science 155:531–534Google Scholar
  36. Lowe CH, Schwalbe CR, Johnson TB (1986) The venomous reptiles of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Dept, Phoenix, Arizona, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. Mautz WJ (1979) The metabolism of reclusive lizards, the Xantusiidae. Copeia 1979:577–584Google Scholar
  38. Nagy KA, Huey RA, Bennett AF (1984) Field energetics and foraging mode of Kalahari lacertid lizards. Ecology 65:588–596Google Scholar
  39. Pough FH, Andrews RM (1984) Individual and sibling-group variation in metabolism of lizards: the aerobic capacity model for the origin of endothermy. Comp Biochem Physiol 79A:415–419Google Scholar
  40. Pregill GK, Gauthier JA, Greene HW (1986) The evolution of helodermatid squamates, with description of a new taxon and an overview of Varanoidea. Trans San Diego Soc Nat Hist 21:167–202Google Scholar
  41. Putnam RW, Murphy RW (1982) Low metabolic rate in a nocturnal desert lizard, Anarbylus switaki Murphy (Sauria: Gekkonidae). Comp Biochem Physiol 71A:119–123Google Scholar
  42. Roberts LA (1968) Oxygen consumption in the lizard Uta stansburiana. Ecology 49:809–819Google Scholar
  43. Secor SM (1992) Activities and energetics of a sit-and-wait snake, Crotalus cerastes. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, USAGoogle Scholar
  44. Secor SM, Nagy KA (1994) Energetic correlates of foraging mode for the snakes Crotalus cerastes and Masticophis flagellum. Ecology (in press)Google Scholar
  45. Sokal RR, Rolf FJ (1981) Biometry, 2nd edn. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  46. Schmidt-Nielsen K (1983) Animal physiology: adaptation and environment, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Taigen RL (1983) Activity metabolism of anuran amphibians: implications for the origin of endothermy. Am Nat 121:94–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson GC, Withers PC (1992) Effects of body mass and temperature on standard metabolic rates for two Australian varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii and V. panoptes). Copeia 1992:343–350Google Scholar
  49. Withers, PC (1981) Physiological correlates of limblessness and fossoriality in scincid lizards. Copeia 1981:197–204Google Scholar
  50. Wood SC, Johansen K, Glass ML, Maloiy GMO (1978) Aerobic metabolism of the lizard Varanus exanthematicus: effects of activity, temperature, and size. J Comp Physiol 127:331–336Google Scholar
  51. Zari TA (1991) The influence of body mass and temperature on the standard metabolic rate of the herbivorous desert lizard, Uromastyx microlepis. J Therm Biol 16:129–134Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. Beck
    • 1
  • C. H. Lowe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations