Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 52, Issue 7, pp 522–531 | Cite as

Horizontal ground deformation patterns and magma storage during the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: episodes 22–42

  • John P Hoffmann
  • George E Ulrich
  • Michael O Garcia
Article

Abstract

Horizontal ground deformation measurements were made repeatedly with an electronic distance meter near the Puu Oo eruption site approximately perpendicular to Kilauea's east rift zone (ERZ) before and after eruptive episodes 22–42. Line lengths gradually extended during repose periods and rapidly contracted about the same amount following eruptions. The repeated extension and contraction of the measured lines are best explained by the elastic response of the country rock to the addition and subsequent eruption of magma from a local reservoir. The deformation patterns are modeled to constrain the geometry and location of the local reservoir near Puu Oo. The observed deformation is consistent with deformation patterns that would be produced by the expansion of a shallow, steeply dipping dike just uprift of Puu Oo striking parallel to the trend of the ERZ. The modeled dike is centered about 800 m uprift of Puu Oo. Its top is at a depth of 0.4 km, its bottom at about 2.9 km, and the length is about 1.6 km; the dike strikes N65° E and dips at about 87°SE. The model indicates that the dike expanded by 11 cm during repose periods, for an average volumetric expansion of nearly 500 000 m3. The volume of magma added to the dike during repose periods was variable but correlates positively with the volume of erupted lava of the subsequent eruption and represents about 8% of the new lava extruded. Dike geometry and expansion values are used to estimate the pressure increase near the eruption site due to the accumulation of magma during repose periods. On average, vent pressures increased by about 0.38 MPa during the repose periods, one-third of the pressure increase at the summit. The model indicates that the dikelike body below Puu Oo grew in volume from 3 million cubic meters (Mm3) to about 10–12 Mm3 during the series of eruptions. The width of this body was probably about 2.5–3.0 m. No net long-term deformation was detected along the measured deformation lines.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P Hoffmann
    • 1
  • George E Ulrich
    • 2
  • Michael O Garcia
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.908 National CenterU.S. Geological SurveyRestonUSA
  3. 3.Hawaii Institute of GeophysicsUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

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