Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 204–218

Hawaiian magma-reservoir processes as inferred from the petrology of gabbro xenoliths in basalt, Kahoolawe Island

  • R. V. Fodor
  • E. A. Rudek
  • G. R. Bauer
Article

Abstract

Gabbro xenoliths in a tholeiitic lava of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, a ∼1.3–1.4 Ma shield volcano, are 1–3 cm in size and comprised of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene. Gabbro textures — while intergranular and in part subophitic-are “open” due to 28–48 vol.% of vesicular basalt occupying xenolith space. Vesicles in and around the xenoliths are lined or filled with rhyolitic glass (segregation vesicles). The host is evolved tholeiite (MgO 6.1 wt%) with phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, and glomerocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase, and megacrysts (∼1 cm) of plagioclase. The Sr-isotope ratio of one xenolith is 0.70489; the host basalt ratio is 0.70460. Xenolith isotope composition, grain resorption, and clinopyroxene (Fs12.5–15Wo38–35.5), orthopyroxene (Fs19.5–24Wo4.1), and plagioclase (An68–65Or0.8–1.2) compositions suggest that these gabbros crystallized from Kahoolawe tholeiitic magma of essentially the same composition as the host basalt, but pre-dating the magma represented by the host. Based on the absence of intergranular Fe−Ti oxide phases from the pl+cpx+opx assemblages, and the open, vuggy textures, we envision crystallization on a reservoir roof at temperatures >1100°C. Entrainment of gabbro assemblages and plagioclase megacrysts from a roof mush/suspension zone occurred during convection associated with replenishment of the magma reservoir. These open-textured gabbro xenoliths are therefore not fragments of preexisting coarse-grained bodies such as sills or segregation veins. Rhyolitic glass in vesicles represents a gas-effervescence filtration process that forced fractionated residual liquids from the groundmass into voids associated with the xenoliths.

Key words

Hawaiian tholeiite composition gabbro xenoliths magma convection magma “mush” basalt mineral compositions rhyoltitic glass vesicles 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson AT, Swihart GH, Artoli G, Geiger CA (1984) Segregation vesicles, gas filter-pressing, and igneous differentiation. J Geol 92:55–72Google Scholar
  2. Arndt NT, Fleet ME (1979) Stable and metastable pyroxene crystallization in layered komatiite lava flows. Am Mineral 64:856–864Google Scholar
  3. Bauer GR, Fodor RV, Husler JW, Keil K (1973) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks III. Composition and mineralogy of a new rhyodacite occurrence on Oahu, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 40:183–194Google Scholar
  4. Bence AE, Albee AL (1968) Empirical correlation factors for the electron microanalysis of silicates and oxides. J Geol 76:382–403Google Scholar
  5. Bottinga Y, Javoy M (1981) The degassing of Hawaiian tholeiite. Bull Volcanol 53:73–85Google Scholar
  6. Brandeis G, Jaupart C (1986) On the interaction between convection and crystallization in cooling magma chambers. Earth Planet Sci Lett 77:345–361Google Scholar
  7. Davis AS, Clague DA (1990) Gabbroic xenoliths from the northern Gorda ridge: implications for magma chamber processes under slow spreading centers. J Geophys Research 95:10885–10905Google Scholar
  8. Dixon JE, Clague DA, Eissen JP (1986) Gabbroic xenoliths and host ferrobasalt from the southern Juan de Fuca ridge. J Geophys Research 91:3795–3820Google Scholar
  9. Fodor RV, Vandermeyden HJ (1988) Petrology of gabbroic xenoliths from Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 93:4435–4452Google Scholar
  10. Fodor RV, Keil K, Bunch TE (1975) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks IV. Pyroxenes in rocks from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 50:173–195Google Scholar
  11. Fodor RV, Frey FA, Bauer GR, Clague DA (1992) Ages, rare-earth element enrichment, and petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts from Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 110:442–462Google Scholar
  12. Frey FA, Garcia MO, Wise WS, Kennedy A, Gurriet P, Albarede F (1991) The evolution of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii: petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts. J Geophys Res 96:14347–14375Google Scholar
  13. Garcia MO, Ho RA, Rhodes JM, Wolfe EW (1989) Petrologic constraints on rift-zone processes. Bull Volcanol 52:81–96Google Scholar
  14. Goldberg SA, Butler JR, Fullagar PD (1986) The Bakersville dike swarm: geochronology and petrogenesis of late Proterozoic basaltic magmatism in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge. Am J Sci 286:403–430Google Scholar
  15. Grove TL, Bryan WB (1983) Fractionation of pyroxene-phyric MORB at low pressure: an experimental study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:293–309Google Scholar
  16. Hekinian R, Hebert RC, Berger ET (1985) Orthopyroxene gabbroic xenoliths in basalts from the East Pacific Rise axis near 12 50′N. Bull Mineral 108:691–698Google Scholar
  17. Helz RT (1980) Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967–1979. Bull Volcanol 43–44:675–701Google Scholar
  18. Helz RT (1987) Differentiation behavior of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: an overview of past and current work. In: Mysen BO (ed) Magmatic processes: physicochemical principles. Geochem Soc Spec Pub 1:241–258Google Scholar
  19. Helz RT, Thornber BR (1987) Geothermometry of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Bull Volcanol 49:651–668Google Scholar
  20. Huppert HE, Sparks RJ (1980) The fluid dynamics of a basaltic magma chamber replenished by influx of hot, dense ultrabasic magma. Contrib Mineral Petrology 75:279–289Google Scholar
  21. Huppert ME, Turner JS (1991) Comments on ‘Convective style and vigor in sheet-like magma chambers’ by BD Marsh. J Petrol 32:851–854Google Scholar
  22. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1989) The generation and collapse of a foam layer at the roof of a basaltic magma chamber. J Fluid Mech 203:347–380Google Scholar
  23. Keil K, Fodor RV, Bunch TE (1972) Contributions to the mineral chemistry of Hawaiian rocks II. Feldspars and interstitial material in rocks from Haleakala and West Maui volcanoes, Maui, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 37:237–276Google Scholar
  24. Macdonald GA (1940) Petrography of Kahoolawe. Hawaii Div Hydrography Bull 6:149–173Google Scholar
  25. Macdonald GA, Katsura T (1964) Chemical composition of Hawaiian lavas. J Petrol 5:82–133Google Scholar
  26. Marsh BD (1988) Crystal capture, sorting, and retention in convective magma. Geol Soc Am Bull 100:1720–2737Google Scholar
  27. Marsh BD (1991) Reply (to “Comments on ‘On convective style and vigor in sheet-like magma chambers’ by BD Marsh”). J Petrol 32:855–860Google Scholar
  28. McMillan K, Cross RW, Long PE (1987) Two-stage vesiculation in the Chohasset flow of the Grande Ronde basalt, south central Washington. Geol 15:809–812Google Scholar
  29. Murata KJ, Richter DH (1961) Magmatic differentiation in the Uwekahuna laccolith, Kilauea caldera, Hawaii. J Petrol 2:424–437Google Scholar
  30. Petersen JS (1987) Solidification contraction: another approach to cumulus processes and the origin of igneous layering. In: Parsons I (ed) Origins of igneous layering. D Reidel Pub. Dordrecht, Holland, 505–526Google Scholar
  31. Philpotts AR (1982) Compositions of immiscible liquids in volcanic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:201–218Google Scholar
  32. Rudek EA, Fodor RV, Bauer GR (1992) Petrology of ultramafic and mafic xenoliths in picrite of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 55:74–84Google Scholar
  33. Ryan MP (1988) The mechanics and three-dimensional internal structure of active magmatic systems: Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 93:4213–4248Google Scholar
  34. Scott RB (1971) Alkali exchange during devitrification and hydration of glass in ignimbrite cooling units. J Geol 79:100–110Google Scholar
  35. Smith D, Lindsley DH (1971) Stable and metastable augite crystallization trends in a single basalt flow. Am Mineral 56:225–233Google Scholar
  36. Spencer KT, Lindsley DH (1981) A solution model for coexisting iron-titanium oxides. Am Mineral 66:1189–1201Google Scholar
  37. Staudigel H, Zindler D, Hart SR, Leslie T, Chen CY, Clague DA (1984) The isotope systematics of a juvenile intraplate volcano: Pb, Nd, and Sr isotope ratios of basalts from Loihi seamount, Hawaii. Earth Planet Sci Lett 69:13–29Google Scholar
  38. Vergniolle S, Jaupart C (1990) The dynamics of degassing at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 95:2793–2809Google Scholar
  39. Walker GPL (1989) Spongy pahoehoe in Hawaii: a study of vesicle-distribution patterns in basalt and their significance. Bull Volcanol 51:199–209Google Scholar
  40. Wells PR (1977) Pyroxene thermometry in simple and complex systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 62:129–139Google Scholar
  41. West HB, Gerlach DC, Leeman WP, Garcia MO (1987) Isotopic constraints on the origin of Hawaiian lavas from Maui volcanic complex, Hawaii. Nature 330:216–220Google Scholar
  42. Worster MG, Huppert HE, Sparks RSG (1990) Convection and crystallization in magma cooled from above. Earth Planet Sci Lett 101:78–89Google Scholar
  43. Wright TL, Okamura RT (1977) Cooling and crystallization of tholeiitic basalt, 1965 Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1004:78Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. V. Fodor
    • 1
  • E. A. Rudek
    • 1
  • G. R. Bauer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of Land and Natural ResourcesHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations