Social Indicators Research

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 89–108 | Cite as

The use of the CES-D for measuring symptoms of depression in three rural Russian villages

  • Larry D. Dershem
  • Valeri V. Patsiorkovski
  • David J. O'Brien


This paper reports the use of a standardized depression scale (CES-D) in a sample survey of three Russian villages (N=263) in the summer of 1993. The analysis shows a good response rate on all items, except for two. The internal consistency of the scale is good (alpha reliability is 0.79), and the factor loadings are sensible and relatively high.

There is a greater percentage of the respondents in rural Russia who showed symptoms of depression compared to the percentage of respondents who showed symptoms of depression in other studies. Greater levels of depression were found among respondents who were elderly, in poor health, who were women, divorced or separated, and had little social support.


Social Support Internal Consistency Factor Loading Poor Health Depression Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, P.S. and MichaelSchulman: 1990, ‘Financial strain and depression among farm operators: The role of perceived economic hardship and personal control’, Rural Sociology 55, pp. 475–493.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, G.E., R.F.Currie, and A.Segall: 1988, ‘Symptoms of depression in a Canadian urban sample’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 33 (June), pp. 386–393.Google Scholar
  3. Belyea, M.J. and M.L.Lobao: 1990, ‘Psychosocial consequences of agricultural transformation: The farm crisis and depression’, Rural Sociology 55(1), pp. 55–75.Google Scholar
  4. Boyd, J.H., M.M.Weissman, W.D.Thompson, and J.K.Myers: 1982, ‘Screening for depressing in a community sample: Understanding the discrepancies between depression symptoms and diagnostic scales’, Archives of General Psychiatry 39, pp. 1195–1204.Google Scholar
  5. Catalano, R.A. and D.Dooley: 1977, ‘Economic predictors of depressed mood and stressful life events in a metropolitan community’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 18, pp. 292–307.Google Scholar
  6. Ciarlo, J.A. and D.L. Tweed: 1992, ‘Exploring Colorado's need for mental health services: Some preliminary findings’, Paper presented to the meeting of the American Evaluation Association, Seatle, WA.Google Scholar
  7. DeForge, B.R. and J.Sobal: 1988, ‘Self-report depression scales in the elderly: The relationship between the CES-D and Zung’, International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 18(4), pp. 325–338.Google Scholar
  8. Ensel, W.M.: 1986, ‘Measuring depression’, in N.Lin, A.Dean, and W.Ensel (eds.), Social Support, Life Events, and Depression (Academic Press, Orlando, FL), pp. 51–70.Google Scholar
  9. Gatz, M. and M.Hurwicz: 1990, ‘Are old peole more depressed? Cross-sectional data on Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale factors’, Psychology and Aging 5, pp. 284–290.Google Scholar
  10. Himmelfarb, S. and S.A.Murrel: 1983, ‘Reliability and validity of five mental health scales in older persons’, American Journal of Gerontology 117, pp. 173–183.Google Scholar
  11. Hoyt, D.R., D.O'Donnell, and K.Y.Mack: 1995, ‘Psychological distress and size of place: The epidemiology of rural economic stress’, Rural Sociology 60(4), pp. 707–720.Google Scholar
  12. Hoyt, D.R.: 1988, Economic stress and mental health in rural Iowa. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  13. Husaini, B.A., J.A.Neff, J.B.Harrington, M.D.Hughes, and R.H.Stone: 1980, ‘Depression in rural communities: Validating the CES-D scale’, Journal of Community Psychology 8, pp. 20–27.Google Scholar
  14. Husaini, B.A. and J.A.Neff: 1982, ‘The prevalence of psychopathology in rural Tennessee and Oklahoma’, in P.A.Keller and J.D.Murray (eds.), Handbook of Rural Community Mental Health (Human Sciences Press, New York), pp. 45–51.Google Scholar
  15. Kohout, F.J., L.F.Berkman, D.A.Evans and J.Cornoni-Huntley: 1993, ‘Two shorter forms of the CES-D depression symptoms index’, Journal of Aging and Health 5(2) (May), pp. 179–193.Google Scholar
  16. Lin, N., A.Dean, and W.Ensel: 1987, Social Support, Life Events, and Depression (Academic Press, Orlando).Google Scholar
  17. Linn, J.G. and B.A.Husaini: 1987, ‘Determinants of psychological depression and coping behaviors of Tennessee farm residents’, Journal of Community Psychology 15, pp. 503–512.Google Scholar
  18. Maddox, G.L. and E.B.Douglass: 1973, ‘Self-assessment of health: A longitudinal study of elderly subjects’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 14, pp. 87–93.Google Scholar
  19. Neff, J.A. and B.A.Husaini: 1987, ‘Urbanicity, race, and psychological distress’, Journal of Community Psychology 15, pp. 520–536.Google Scholar
  20. O'Brien, D.J., E.W.Hassinger, and L.Dershem: 1994, ‘Community attachment and depression among residents in two rural Midwestern communities’, Rural Sociology 59(2), pp. 255–265.Google Scholar
  21. O'Brien, D.J., V.V.Patsiorkovski, I.Korkhova, and L.D.Dershem: 1993, ‘The future of the village in a restructured food and agricultural sector in the former Soviet Union’, Agriculture and Human Values X(1), pp. 11–20.Google Scholar
  22. O'Hara, M.W., Kohout, F.J., and R.B.Wallace: 1985, ‘Depression among the rural elderly: A study of prevalence and correlates’, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173(10), pp. 582–589.Google Scholar
  23. Radloff, L.S.: 1977, ‘The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population’, Applied Psychological Measurement 1(3), pp. 385–401.Google Scholar
  24. Rimashevskaya, N.M.: 1995, ‘Impact of the socio-economic transformations of family well-being: Russia before and after 1992’, Working paper, ISESP.Google Scholar
  25. Sayetta, R.B. and D.P.Johnson: 1980, ‘Basic data on depressive symptomology, United States 1974–75’, Vital and Health Statistics (Series 11, No. 216, DHEW Publication No. 80-1666) (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.).Google Scholar
  26. Weissman, M.M. and G.L.Klerman: 1977, ‘Sex difference in the epidemiology of depression’, Archives of General Psychiatry 34, pp. 98–111.Google Scholar
  27. Ying, Yu-wen: 1988, ‘Depressive symptomatology among Chinese-Americans as measured by the CES-D’, Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(5), pp. 739–746.Google Scholar
  28. Zung, William W.K.: 1965, ‘A self-rating depression scale’, Archives of General Psychiatry 12, pp. 61–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry D. Dershem
    • 1
    • 2
  • Valeri V. Patsiorkovski
    • 1
    • 2
  • David J. O'Brien
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Rural SociologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Institute for the Socio-Economic Studies of PopulationRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations