The reproductive behavior of Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and the significance of size for territorial males
- 148 Downloads
Males of the wool-carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, patrol clumps of garden plants. Females of this species visit these plants for pollen, nectar, and pubescence; they also mate there. Females are polyandrous, with intervals between copulations as short as 35 s. Patrolling males defend their territories (0.1–1.3 m2) against other males and against other species of flower-visiting insects. Honey bees may be rendered unable to fly by the attacks of A. manicatum.
Territory owners perform exploratory flights to other males' territories, changing territories often (median ownership 4–7 days; maximum 30 days) and flying up to 450 m to establish new territories. Territorial usurpations are nearly always by larger males.
Female visitation rate is significantly correlated with number of flowers on a territory. The head size of territory-owner males shows significant correlation with territorial quality (measured by number of flowers, not area) and thus with number of female visits and copulatory opportunities. Some males fail to maintain territories and instead attempt to forage and copulate in other males' territories while the owners are otherwise occupied. Nonowner males are significantly smaller than owners, forage less often and from fewer flowers, and achieve significantly fewer copulations than owners. Females, however, do not reject smaller, nonowner males at a higher rate than they do larger, owner males; their choice for male size appears to be indirect, based instead on choice of food resource.
The interval between a copulation and the male's next attempt with a different female is not shorter than that involving the same female. Males do not escort just-mated females about their teritories, as observed in Anthidium maculosum. Territorial behavior in this species most likely evolved through intrasexual competition for reproductive success which led to sexual dimorphism. The defense of a resourcebased territory is the mechanism used by a male to maximize his reproductive potential.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alcock J (1979) The evolution of intraspecific diversity in male reproductive strategies in some bees and wasps. In: Blum MS, Blum NA (eds) Sexual selection and reproductive competition in insects. Academic Press, New York, pp 381–402Google Scholar
- Alcock J, Eickwort GC, Eickwort KR (1977a) The reproductive behavior of Anthidium maculosum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and the evolutionary significance of multiple copulations by females. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2:385–396Google Scholar
- Alcock J, Jones CE, Buchmann SL (1977b) Male mating strategies in the bee Centris pallida Fox (Anthophoridae: Hymenoptera). Am Nat 111:145–155Google Scholar
- Alcock J, Barrows EM, Gordh G, Hubbard LJ, Kirkendall L, Pyle DW, Ponder TL, Zalom FG (1978) The ecology and evolution of male reproductive behaviour in the bees and wasps. Zool J Linn Soc 64:293–326Google Scholar
- Eickwort GC (1977) Male territorial behaviour in the mason bee Hoplitis anthocopoides (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Anim Behav 25:542–554Google Scholar
- Eickwort GC, Ginsberg HS (1980) Foraging and mating behavior in Apoidea. Annu Rev Entomol 25:421–446Google Scholar
- Haas A (1960) Vergleichende Verhaltensstudien zum Paarungsschwarm solitärer Apiden. Z Tierpsychol 17:402–416Google Scholar
- Jaycox ER (1967a) Territorial behavior among males of Anthidium banningense (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J Kans Entomol Soc 40:565–570Google Scholar
- Jaycox ER (1967b) An adventive Anthidium in New York State (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). J Kans Entomol Soc 40:124–126Google Scholar
- Kurtak BH (1973) Aspects of the biology of the European bee Anthidium manicatum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in New York State. MS thesis, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Pechuman LL (1967) Observations on the behavior of the bee Anthidium manicatum (L.). J NY Entomol Soc 75:68–73Google Scholar