Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 19–41 | Cite as

Air pollution injury to coastal sage scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains, Southern California

  • Walter E. Westman
Article

Abstract

A field survey observed 26 types of foliar damage symptoms on seven species of coastal sage scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area near Los Angeles, California. Of these, 6 symptoms were likely related to herbivory. Forty percent of visual injury symptoms in the field matched symptoms observed on these species exposed for 10 weeks to controlled fumigation with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 ppm of O3 and 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 PPM of SO2 or combinations of these. Based on a comparison of field and chamber symptoms, it appeared that both 03 and SO2 were responsible for field injury symptoms, with 03 being the more frequent cause. Symptoms also appeared to be produced at lower concentrations in the field than in chambers. Using the foliar damage symptom present in greatest intensity on a 3-point scale, species were generally found to exhibit increased intensity of this symptom on sites estimated to experience higher levels of 03, SO2 and NO2. Pollution levels at sites were estimated from seven surrounding air quality monitoring stations. One- or two-month-old leaves exhibit sufficient intensity of symptom damage that not all observed injury can be attributed to senescence. Brachyblast leaves of Salvia mellifera exhibited more severe damage symptoms than dolichoblasts, confirming fumigation chamber results; for three other seasonally dimorphic species, brachyblasts were not more sensitive. Fasciated stems were found both in fumigation chambers and in the field on Artemisia californica, Lotus scoparius and Eriogonum fasciculatum, but sample sizes were not sufficient to distinguish among alternative potential causes of this phenomenon.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bandel, G. and Gottschalk, W.: 1978, Z. Pflanzenzuecht 81, 60.Google Scholar
  2. Boke, N. H. and Ross, R. G.: 1978, Amer. J. Bot. 65, 522.Google Scholar
  3. Burke, G. F.: 1942, Vegetation Types, Works Project Administration Official Project 65-2-08-368.Google Scholar
  4. California Air Resources Board: 1978–82, California Air Quality Data Summaries, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982. Sacramento, Calif.Google Scholar
  5. Curry, T. M., Albertsen, M. C., and Palmer, R. G.: 1981, Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 88, 3.Google Scholar
  6. Environmental Protection Agency: 1977, Final EIS/EIR Las Virgenes-Triunfo/Malibu-Topanga Area Wide Facilities Plan. Region IX, San Fransico, Calif.Google Scholar
  7. Gottschalk, W.: 1977, J. Nucl. Agric. Biol. 6, 27.Google Scholar
  8. Hirsinger, F. and Roebbelen, G.: 1980, Z. Pflanzenzuecht 85, 275.Google Scholar
  9. Hoffmann, M. R., Morgan, J. J., Jacob, D. J., Munber, J. W., and Waldman, J. M.: 1983, Characterization of Reactants, Reaction Mechanisms and Products leading to extreme Acid Rain and Acid Aerosol Conditions in Southern California (Final Report, Grant No. AO-141-32, Calif Air Resources Board), Calif Inst. Tech., Pasadena, CalifGoogle Scholar
  10. Miller, P. L.: 1973, ‘Oxidant-Induced Community Change in a Mixed Conifer Forest’, in J. A. Naegele (ed.) Air Pollution Damage to Vegetation, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 101–117.Google Scholar
  11. Naveh, Z., Steinberger, E. H., Chaim, S., and Rotmann, A.: Environ. Conserv. 7, 301.Google Scholar
  12. Nuno, G. J.: 1980, Vegetation of the Santa Monica Mountains, Map library, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  13. Plantefol, L.: 1974, Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Seances de lAcademie des Sciences, Ser. D. Sciences Naturelles 278, 229.Google Scholar
  14. Plantefol, L.: 1981, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. III. Sci. Vie 292, 947.Google Scholar
  15. Plantefol, L.: 1982, C. R. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. III. Sci. Vie 294, 985.Google Scholar
  16. Preston, K. P.: 1980, ‘Effects of Sulfur Dioxide Pollution on Coastal Sage Scrub’. M. A. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  17. Preston, K. P.: 1984, unpublished data.Google Scholar
  18. Preston, K. P., Weeks, L. B., and Westman, W. E.: 1984, unpublished data.Google Scholar
  19. Rance, S. J., Cameron, D. M., and Williams, E. R.: 1982, Plant and Soil 65, 293.Google Scholar
  20. Sandberg, J. S., Basso, M. J., and Okin, B. A.: 1979, Science 203, 82.Google Scholar
  21. Smith, W. K. and Nobel, P. S.: 1977, Ecology 58, 1003.Google Scholar
  22. Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H.: 1960, Principles and Procedures of Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Unger, C. D.: 1984, California Air Resources Board internal memo, January 18, 1984, cited in Shikiya, M.C. Broadbent, J., Nelson, E., and Taylor, T.: 1984, Acid Deposition in the South Coast Air Basin: An Assessment. South Coast Air Quality Management District, El Monte, Calif.Google Scholar
  24. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: 1978, Report on Floods of February and March, 1978, in southern California. Los Angeles, Calif.Google Scholar
  25. Waldman, J. M., Munger, J. W., Jacob, D. J., Flagan, R. C., Morgan, J. J., and Hoffmann, M. R.: 1982, Science 218, 677.Google Scholar
  26. Westman, W. E.: 1977, Science 197. 960.Google Scholar
  27. Westman, W. E.: 1979, Science 205, 1001.Google Scholar
  28. Westman, W. E.: 1981, Oecologia 51, 385.Google Scholar
  29. Westman, W. E.: 1983, Vegetatio 52, 3.Google Scholar
  30. Westman, W. E., Preston, K. P., and Weeks, L. B.: 1985, ‘Sulfur Dioxide Effects on the Growth of Native Plants’, in W. E. Winner, H. A. Mooney, R. Goldstein (eds.), Sulfur Dioxide and Vegetation. Physiology, Ecology, and Policy Issues, Stanford Univ. Press. Stanford, Calif., (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Williams, W. T., Brady, M., and Willison, S. C.: 1977, J. Air Poll. Control Assoc. 27, 230.Google Scholar
  32. Winner, W. E.: 1981, ‘The Effect of Sulfur Dioxide on Photosynthesis and Stomatal Behavior of Mediterranean-Climate Shrubs and Trees’, in N. S. Margaris and H. A. Mooney (eds.), Components of Productivity of Mediterranean Regions — Basic and Applied Aspects, Junk, The Hague, pp. 91–103.Google Scholar
  33. Winner, W. E. and Mooney, H. A.: 1980, Oecologia 44, 296.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter E. Westman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations