Calcified Tissue International

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 212–215 | Cite as

Bone mineral density in weight lifters

  • Magnus K. Karlsson
  • Olof Johnell
  • Karl J. Obrant
Clinical Investigations

Summary

The effect of intense physical training on the bone mineral content (BMC) and soft tissue composition, and the development of these values after cessation of the active career, was studied in 40 nationally or internationally ranked male weight lifters. Nineteen were active and 21 had retired from competition sports. Fifty-two age- and sexmatched nonweight lifters served as controls. The bone mineral density (BMD) in total body, spine, hip, and proximal tibial metaphysis was measured with a Lunar Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus and the BMD of the distal forearm was measured with single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Seventeen of the lifters had been measured earlier with SPA in the forearm and 23 in the tibial condyle during their active career in 1975. The BMD was significantly higher in the weight lifters compared with the controls (10% in the total body P<0.001, 12% in the trochanteric region P<0.001, and 13% in the lumbar spine P<0.001). All measured regions except the head showed significant higher bone mass in the weight lifters compared with the controls. In older lifters, the difference from the controls seemed to increase in total body and lumbar vertebrae (BMD), but remained unchanged in the hip. Significant correlation was found between the SPA measurements in 1975 and the corresponding measurements 15 years later in both the forearm (r=0.51, P<0.05 at the 1-cm level and r=0.87, P<0.001 at the 6-cm level) and in the tibial condyle (r=0.61, P<0.01). There was no difference in BMD for any region between active and retired weight lifters that was not explained by difference in age. The weight lifters were on average 5 cm shorter but of the same weight as the controls. In the weight lifters, the body mass index (BMI) was increased as was the lean body mass, but not the fat content.

Key words

Bone mineral density Weightlifters DXA Physical activity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Block JE, Genant HK, Black D (1978) Greater vertebral bone mineral mass in exercising young men. West J Med 145:39–42Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jacobsson PC, Beaver W, Grubb SA, Taft TN, Talmage RV (1984) Bone density in women: college and older athletic women. J Orthop Res 2(4):238–332Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Talmage RV, Stinett SS, Landwehr JT, Vincent LM, Mc Cartmey WH (1986) Age-related loss of bone mineral density in non-athletic and athletic women. Bone Miner 1(2):115–125Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nilsson BE, Westlin NE (1971) Bone density in athletes. Clin Orthop Rel Res 77:179–182Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Granheden H, Jonsson R, Keller T, Hansson T (1988) Short-and long-term effects of vigorous physical activity on bone mineral in the human spine. PhD thesis Granheden H Extreme spinal loadings. Effects on the vertebral bone mineral content and strength, and the risks for future low back pain in man. University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Notelovitz M, Martin D, Tesar R, Khan FY, Probart C, Fields C, McKenzie L (1991) Estrogen therapy and variable-resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 6:583–590Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gutin B, Kasper MJ (1992) Can vigorous exercise play a role in osteoporosis prevention? A review. Osteoporosis Int 2:55–69Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colletti LA, Edwards J, Gordon L, Shary J, Bell NH (1989) The effects of muscle-building exercise on bone mineral density of the radius, spine, and hip in young men. Calcif Tissue Int 45:12–14Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Donaldsson CL, Hulley SB, Vogel JM, Hattner RS, Bayers JH, McMillan DE (1970) Effect of prolonged bed rest on bone mineral. Metabolism 19(12):1071–1084Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krolner B, Toft B (1983) Vertebral bone loss: an unheeded side effect of therapeutic bed rest. Clin Sci 64:537–540Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ (1988) Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann Int Med 108:824–828Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krolner B, Töndevold E, Toft B, Berthelsen B, Nielsen SP (1982) Bone mass of the axial and appendicular skeleton in women with Colle's fracture: its relation to physical activity. Clin Physiol 2:147–157Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gärdsell P, Johnell O, Nilsson BE (1991) The predictive value of bone loss for fragility fractures in women. Calcif Tissue Int 49(2):90–94Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mazess RB, Barden HS, Bisek JP, Hanson J (1990) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for total-body and regional bone-mineral and soft tissue composition. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1106–1112Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rockwell JC, Sorensen AM, Baker S, Leahey D, Stock JL, Michaels J, Baran DT (1990) Weight training decreases vertebral bone density in premenopausal women: a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 71:988–993Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1981) Time course of the adaptive responses of aerobic power and heart rate to training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13(1):17–20Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Margulies JY (1986) Effect of intense physical activity on the bone mineral content in the lower limbs of young adults. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 68A:7:1090–1093Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aloia JF, Cohn SH, Ostuni JA, Cane R, Ellis K (1978) Prevention of involuntary bone loss by exercise. Ann Int Med 89:356–358Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chow RK, Harrison JE, Brown CF, Hajek V (1986) Physical fitness effect on bone mass in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 67:231–234Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huddlestone AL, Rockwell D, Kulund BN, Harrison RB (1980) Bone mass in lifetime athletes. JAMA 244:1107–1109Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cavanaugh DJ, Cann CE (1988) Brisk walking does not stop bone loss in postmenopausal women. Bone 9:201–204Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mazess RB, Whedon GD (1983) Immobilisation and bone. Calcif Tissue Int 35:265–267Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Institute of Health (1984) Osteoporosis conscensus conference. JAMA 252:199–802Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Block JE, Friedlander AL, Brooks GA, Steiger P, Stubbs HA, Genant HK (1989) Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing activity. Am Physiol Soc 67(3):1100–1105Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magnus K. Karlsson
    • 1
  • Olof Johnell
    • 1
  • Karl J. Obrant
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryMalmö General HospitalMalmöSweden

Personalised recommendations