Coral Reefs

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 239–252 | Cite as

Biological destruction of coral reefs

A review
  • P. A. Hutchings


The major agents of biological destruction of coral reefs can be divided into grazers, etchers and borers. Each of these groups is reviewed on a world wide basis, together with the mechanisms by which they destroy the coral substrate. Rates of bioerosion attributed to major agents of grazers, etchers and borers are given, together with limitations of some of the measurements. Recent work is highlighting the variability in rates of bioerosion both over time and space. Factors which may be responsible for this variability are discussed. Bioerosion is a major factor influencing reef morphology and the ways in which this is achieved is discussed in some detail. Although the review concentrates mainly on present day reefs, some attempt is made to consider the impact of bioerosion on older reefs.


Recent Work Coral Reef Sedimentology Wide Basis Major Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al Hussaini AH (1945) The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the coral feeding fish, Scarus sordidus Klunz. Bull Inst Egypte 27:349–377Google Scholar
  2. Aharon P, Chappell J (1983) Carbon and oxygen isotope probes of reef environment histories. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  3. Aharon P, Chappell J, Compston W (1980) Stable isotope and sea-level data from New Guinea supports Antarctic icesurge theory of ice ages. Nature 283:649–651Google Scholar
  4. Ansell AD, Nair BN (1969) A comparative study of bivalves which bore mainly by mechanical means. Am Zool 9:857–868Google Scholar
  5. Bak RPM (1976) The growth of coral colonies and the importance of crustose coralline algae and burrowing sponges in relation with carbonate accumulation. Neth J Sea Res 10:285–337Google Scholar
  6. Bak RPM (1985) Recruitment patterns and mass mortalities in the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 5:267–272Google Scholar
  7. Bak PPM, Carpay MEJ, De Ruyter van Steveninck ED (1984) Densities of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum before and after mass mortalities on the coral reefs of Curaçao. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 17:105–108Google Scholar
  8. Bardach JE (1961) Transport of calcareous fragments by reef fish. Science 133:98–99Google Scholar
  9. Bathurst RGC (1966) Boring algae, micrite envelopes, and lithification of molluscan biosparites. Lpool Manchr Geol J 5:15–32Google Scholar
  10. Blake JA, Evans JW (1973) Polydora and related genera as borer in mollusk shells and other calcareous substrates. Veliger 15:235–250Google Scholar
  11. Brock RE (1979) An experimental study on the effect of grazing by parrotfishes and role of refuges in benthic community structure. Mar Biol 51:381–388Google Scholar
  12. Bromley RG (1975) Comparative analysis of fossil and recent echinoid bioerosion Palaeontology 18:725–739Google Scholar
  13. Bromley RG (1978) Bioerosion of Bermuda reefs. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 23:169–197Google Scholar
  14. Buddemeier RW, Maragos JE, Knutson DW (1974) Radiographic studies of reef coral exoskeletons: rates and patterns of coral growth. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 14:179–200Google Scholar
  15. Chappell J (1983) Sea-level changes and coral reef growth. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 46–55Google Scholar
  16. Chappell J, Chivas A, Wallensky E, Polach HA, Aharon P (1983) Holocene Palaeo-environmental changes, central to northern Great Barier Reef inner zone. BMR J Aust Geol Geophys 8:223–235Google Scholar
  17. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310Google Scholar
  18. Choat JH (1966) Parrot fish. Aust Nat Hist 15:265–268Google Scholar
  19. Choat JH (1983) Estimation of the abundances of herbivorous fishes and their grazing rates within reef systems. In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings of the Inauguree Conference, Townsville Great Barrier Reef 1983. JCU, Townsville pp 171–177Google Scholar
  20. Choi DR (1982) Coelobites (reef cavity dwellers) as indicators of environmental effects caused by offshore drilling. Bull Mar Sci 32:880–889Google Scholar
  21. Choi DR, (1984) Ecological succession of reef cavity dwellers (Coelobites) in coral rubble. Bull Mar sci 35:72–80Google Scholar
  22. Cloud PE (1959) Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands. Part 4: Submarine topography and shoalwater ecology. US Geol Surv Prof Paps 280-K K361-K445Google Scholar
  23. Crossland DJ (1982) Seasonal growth of Acropora of formosa and Pocillopora damicornis on a high latitude reef (Houtman Abrolhos Western Australia). Proc 4th Coral Reef Symp 1:663–668Google Scholar
  24. Darwin CR (1845) Journal of researches during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Nelson, London (Reprint)Google Scholar
  25. Davies PJ (1983) Reef growth. In: Barnes DJ, (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science Townsville, pp 69–106Google Scholar
  26. Davies PJ, Hopley D (1983) Growth facies and growth rates of Holocene reefs in the Great Barrier Reef. BMR J Aust Geol Geophys 8:237–251Google Scholar
  27. Davies PJ, Hutchings PA (1983) Initial colonization, erosion and accretion on coral substrate: experimental results. Lizard Island Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 2:27–35Google Scholar
  28. Davies PJ, Marshall JF (1979) Aspects of Holocene reef growth-substrate age and accretion rate. Search 10:276–279Google Scholar
  29. Davies PJ, Marshall JF (in press) Age and uthologic structure of holocene reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral ReefsGoogle Scholar
  30. Done T (1982) Patterns in the distribution of coral communities across the central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 1:95–108Google Scholar
  31. Edmunds M (1986) Acid secretion in some species of Doridacea (Mollusca Nudibranchia). Proc Malacol Soc 38:121–133Google Scholar
  32. Emery KO (1962) Marine geology of Guam. US Geol Surv Prof Paps 403-B1–76Google Scholar
  33. Evans JW (1970) Palaeontological implications of a biological study of rock boring clams (Family Pholadidae). In: Crimes TP, Harper JC (eds) Trace fossils. Seel, Liverpool, pp 127–141Google Scholar
  34. Fauchald K (1977) The Polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Nat Hist Mus Los Angeles Cty Sci Ser 28:188Google Scholar
  35. Finks RM (1970) The evolution and ecologic history of sponges during Palaeozoic times. In: Frey WG (ed) Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, no 25. The biology of the Porifera, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  36. Frith CA, Leis JM, Goldman B (in press) Currents in the Lizard Island Region of the Great Barrier Lagoon and their relevance to potential movements of larvae. Coral ReefsGoogle Scholar
  37. Frydl P (1977) The geological effect of grazing by parrot-fish on a Barbados reef. M Sc thesis McGill UniversityGoogle Scholar
  38. Frydl P, Stearn GW (1978) Rate of bioerosion by parrotfish in Barbados Reef environments. J Sediment Petrol 48:1149–1157Google Scholar
  39. Fütterer DK (1974) Significance of the boring sponge Cliona for the origin of fine grained material of carbonate sediments. J Sediment Petrol 44:79–84Google Scholar
  40. Gardiner JS (1902) The action of boring and sand feeding organisms. In: Gardiner JS (ed) The fauna and geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp 33–341Google Scholar
  41. Gardiner JS (1903) The origin of coral reefs as shown by the Maldives. Am J Sci 16:203–213Google Scholar
  42. Glynn PW, Wellington GM, Birkeland C (1979) Coral growth in the Galapagos: limitation by sea urchins. Science 203:47–49Google Scholar
  43. Ginsburg RN (1983) Geological and biological roles of cavities in coral reefs. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 148–153Google Scholar
  44. Gohar HAF, Latif AFA (1963) Digestive proteolytic enzymes of some scarid and labrid fishes (from the Red Sea). Publ Mar Biol Stn Al Ghardaga 12:4–42Google Scholar
  45. Golubic S, Perkins RD, Lukas KJ (1975) Boring micro-organisms and microborings in carbonate substrates. In: Frey RW (ed) The study of trace fossils. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 229–259Google Scholar
  46. Goreau TF, Hartmann WD (1963) Boring sponges as controlling factors in the formation and maintenance of coral reefs: In: Sognnaes RF (ed) Mechanisms of hard destruction. Publ Am Assoc Adv Sci 75:25–54Google Scholar
  47. Gygi RA (1975) Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre) the stoplight parrotfish, a major sediment producer on coral reefs of Bermuda? Ecol Geol Helv 68:327–359Google Scholar
  48. Halley RB, Shinn EA, Hudson JH Lidz B (1977) Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee Patch Reef, Belize. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:29–35Google Scholar
  49. Hamner WH, Jones MS (1976) Distribution burrowing and growth rates of the clam Tridacna crocea on interior reef flats. Oecologia 24:207–227Google Scholar
  50. Hay ME (1984) Patterns of fish and urchin grazing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typical? Ecology 65:446–454Google Scholar
  51. Hedley C (1906) The mollusca of Masthead Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland. Part 1. Proc Linn Soc NSW 31:453Google Scholar
  52. Hein FJ, Risk MJ (1975) Bioerosion of coral heads: inner patch reefs, Florida reef tract. Bull Mar Sci 25:133–138Google Scholar
  53. Highsmith RC (1980) Geographic patterns of coral bioerosion: a productivity hypothesis. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 46:177–196Google Scholar
  54. Highsmith RC (1981) Lime-boring algae in hermatypic coral skeleton. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 55:267–281Google Scholar
  55. Highsmith RC, Lueptow RL, Schonberg SC (1983) Growth and bioerosion of three massive corals on the Belize barrier reef. Mar Ecol Prog Sci 13:261–271Google Scholar
  56. Hudson JH (1977) Long-term bioerosion rates on a Florida reef: new method. Proc 3rd Int Coral reef Symp 2:491–498Google Scholar
  57. Hunter IG (1977) Sediment production of Diadema antillarum on a Barbados fringing reef. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:105–109Google Scholar
  58. Hutchings PA, (1974) A preliminary report on the density and distribution of invertebrates living on coral reefs. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 1:285–296Google Scholar
  59. Hutchings PA (1978) Non-colonial cryptofauna. In: Stoddart DR, Johannes RE (eds) Coral reefs: research methods. Monograph on oceanographic methodology, vol 5. UNESCO, Paris, pp 251–262Google Scholar
  60. Hutchings PA (1981) Polychaete recruitment onto dead coral substrates at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Bull Mar Sci 31:410–424Google Scholar
  61. Hutchings PA (1983a) Cryptofaunal communities of coral reefs. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 200–208Google Scholar
  62. Hutchings PA (1983b) Bioerosion of coral substrates. In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference, Townsville 1983. JCU, Townsville, pp 113–119Google Scholar
  63. Hutchings PA (1984) A preliminary report on the spatial and temporal patterns of polychaete recruitment on the Great Barrier Reef. In: Hutchings PA (ed) Proc 1st Int Poly Conf Sydney. Linn Soc NSW, pp 227–237Google Scholar
  64. Hutchings PA (1985) Variability in polychaete recruitment at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: a long term study and an analysis of its potential impact on coral reef ecosystems. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 5:245–250Google Scholar
  65. Hutchings PA, Bamber L (1985) Variability of bioerosion rates at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: preliminary attempts to explain these rates and their significance. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 5:333–338Google Scholar
  66. Hutchings PA, Murray A (1982) Patterns of recruitment of polychaetes to coral substrates at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef — an experimental approach. Aust J Mar Freshwat Res 33:1029–37Google Scholar
  67. Hutchings PA, Weate PB (1977) Distribution and abundance of cryptofauna from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Mar Res Indonesia 17:99–112Google Scholar
  68. Hutchings PA, Weate PB (1979) Experimental recruitment of endo-cryptolithic communities at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Preliminary results. N Z Dep Sci Ind Res Inf Ser 137:239–256Google Scholar
  69. James NP, Kobluk DR, Pemberton SG (1977) The oldest macroborers: lower Cambrian of Labrador. Science 197:980–983Google Scholar
  70. Jones RS (1968) Ecological relationships in Hawaiian and Johnston Island Acanthuridae (surgeon fishes). Micronesica 4:309–361Google Scholar
  71. Kanwischer JW, Wainwright SA, (1967) Oxygen balance in some reef corals. Biol Bull Mar Biol Lab Woods Hole 135:141–148Google Scholar
  72. Kelleher G (1983) Information needs for managing the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. In: Baker JJ, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference, Townsville 1983. JCU, Townsville, pp 43–60Google Scholar
  73. Kiene WE (1985) Biological destruction of experimental coral substrates at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 5:339–344Google Scholar
  74. Kinsey DW (1983) Standards of performance in coral reef primary production and carbon turnover. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives in coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 209–220Google Scholar
  75. Kinsey DW, Davies PJ (1979) Carbon turnover, calcification and growth in coral reefs. In: Trudingar PA, Swaine DJ (eds) Biogeochemical cycling of mineral forming elements. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 131–162Google Scholar
  76. Kinsey DW (1983) Short-term indicators of gross material flux in coral reefs — how far have we come and how much further can we go? In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings Inaugural Conference, Townsville 1983. JCU, Townsville, pp 333–340Google Scholar
  77. Kleeman KH (1980) Boring bivalves and their host corals from the Great Barrier Reef. J Mol Stud 46:13–54Google Scholar
  78. Kobluk DR, Risk MJ (1974) Devonian boring algae or fungi associated with micrite tubules. Can J Earth Sci 11:1606–1610Google Scholar
  79. Kobluk DR, Risk MJ (1977a) Calcification of exposed filaments of endolithic algae, micrite onvelope formation and sediment production. J Sediment Petrol 47:517–528Google Scholar
  80. Kobluk DR, Risk MJ (1977b) Rate and nature of infestation of carbonate substrates by a boring algae Ostreobium sp. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 27:107–115Google Scholar
  81. Kohlmeyer J (1969) The role of marine fungi in the penetration of calcareous substances. Am Zool 9:741–746Google Scholar
  82. Kohn AJ, Lloyd MC (1973) Polychaetes of truncated reef limestone substrates on eastern Indian Ocean coral reefs: diversity, abundance, and taxonomy. Int Rev Gesamten Hydrobiol 58:369–399Google Scholar
  83. Kohn AJ, Nybakken JW (1975) Ecology of Conus on eastern Indian Ocean fringing reefs: diversity of species and resources utilization. Mar Biol 29:211–234Google Scholar
  84. Lessios HA, Robertson DR, Cubit JD (1984) Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science 226:335–337Google Scholar
  85. Loya Y (1982) Life history strategies of boring bivalves in corals. The reef and man. Proc 4th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:756 (abstr)Google Scholar
  86. Lowenstam HW (1962) Magnetite in denticle capping in recent Chitons (Polyplacophora). Bull Geol Soc Am 73:435–438Google Scholar
  87. MacGeachy JK (1977) Factors controlling sponge boring in Barbados reef corals. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:478–483Google Scholar
  88. Marshall JF (1983) Marine lithification in coral reefs. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 231–239Google Scholar
  89. Marshall JF, Davies PJ (1982) Internal structure and Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 1:21–29Google Scholar
  90. McCloskey LR (1970) The dynamics of the community associated with a marine scleractinian coral. Int Rev Gesamten Hydrobiol 55:13–81Google Scholar
  91. McLean RF (1967) Measurement of beachrock erosion by some tropical marine gastropods. Bull Mar Sci 17:551–561Google Scholar
  92. McLean RF (1974) Geologic significance of bioerosion of beach rock. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:401–409Google Scholar
  93. McMichael DF (1974), Growth rate, population size and mantle colouration in the small giant clam Tridacna maxima (Robing) at One Tree Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 1:241–245Google Scholar
  94. Neumann AC (1966) Observations on coastal erosion in Bermuda and measurements of the boring rate of the sponge Cliona lampa. Limnol Oceanogr 11:92–108Google Scholar
  95. Ogden JC (1977) Carbonate sediment production by parrot fish and sea urchins on Caribbean reefs. In: Frost SH, Weiss MP, Saunders JB (eds) Reefs and related carbonates-ecology and sedimentology. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Stud Geol 4:281–288Google Scholar
  96. Ogden JC, Lobel PS (1978) The role of herbivorous fishes and urchins in coral reef communities. Environ Biol Fish 3:49–63Google Scholar
  97. Otter GW (1937) Rock-destroying organisms in relation to coral reefs. Sci Rep Gt Barrier Reef Exped 1:323–352Google Scholar
  98. Peyrot-Clausade M (1974) Ecological study of coral reef cryptobiotic communities: an analysis of the polychaete cryptofauna. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 1:269–283Google Scholar
  99. Pomponi SA (1977) Etching cells of boring sponges: an ultrastructural analysis. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:485–490Google Scholar
  100. Pomponi SA (1979) Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the etching area of boring sponges. In: Levi C, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Biologie et Spongiaires. Colloques Internationaux du Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique 291:317–323Google Scholar
  101. Purchon RD (1968) The biology of the mollusca. Int Ser Monogr Pure Appl Biol Zool 40:1–560Google Scholar
  102. Randall JE (1967) Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud Trop Oceanogr 5:665–847Google Scholar
  103. Randall JE (1974) The effect of fishes on coral reefs. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reefs Symp 1:159–166Google Scholar
  104. Rice ME (1969) Possible boring structures of sipunculids. Am Zool 9:803–812Google Scholar
  105. Rice ME, MacIntyre IG (1982) Distribution of Sipuncula in the coral reef community, Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In: Rützler K, MacIntyre IG (eds) The Atlantic Barrier Reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I. Structure and communities. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 311–320Google Scholar
  106. Risk MJ, MacGeachy JK (1978) Aspects of bioerosion of modern Caribbean reefs. Revta Biol Trop 26 (Suppl 1):85–105Google Scholar
  107. Risk MJ, Sammarco PW (1982) Bioerosion of corals and the influence of damselfish territory. Oecologia 52:376–380Google Scholar
  108. Rooney WS, Perkins RD (1972) Distribution and geologic significance of micro-boring organisms within sediments of the Arlington Reef complex, Australia, Bull Geol Soc Am 83:1391–1396Google Scholar
  109. Russ G (1984a) Distribution and abundance of herbivorous grazing fishes in the central great Barrier Reef. 1. Levels of variability across the entire continental shelf. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 20:23–34Google Scholar
  110. Russ G (1984b) Distribution and abundance of herbivorous grazing fishes in the central Great Barrier Reef. II. Patterns of zonation of mid-shelf and outershelf reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 20:35–44Google Scholar
  111. Rützler K (1974) The burrowing sponges of Bermuda. Smithson Cont Zool 165:1–32Google Scholar
  112. Rützler K (1975) The role of burrowing sponges in bioerosion. Oecologia 19:203–216Google Scholar
  113. Rützler K, Rieger G (1973) Sponge burrowing: fine structure of Cliona lampa penetrating calcareous substrate. Mar Biol 21:144–162Google Scholar
  114. Sale PF (1980) The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 18:367–423Google Scholar
  115. Sale PF (1983) Temporal variability in the structure of reef fish communities. In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceeding of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference Townsville 1983. JCU Townsville, pp 239–244Google Scholar
  116. Sammarco PW (1980) Diadema and its relationships to coral spat mortality. Grazing competition and biological disturbance. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 45:245–272Google Scholar
  117. Sammarco PW (1982) Echinoid grazing as a structuring force in coral communities: whole reef manipulations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 61:31–55Google Scholar
  118. Sammarco PW (1983) Coral recruitment across the central Great Barrier Reef: a preliminary report. In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference. Townsville 1983. JCU, Townsville, pp 245–250Google Scholar
  119. Schultz LP (1958) Review of the parrotfishes, family Scaridae. Bull US Nat Mus 214:1–143Google Scholar
  120. Scoffin TP (1977) Sea-level features on reefs in the northern province of the Great Barrier Reef. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:319–324Google Scholar
  121. Scoffin JP, Stearn CW, Boucher D, Frydl P, Hawkins CM, Hunter IG, MacGeachy JK (1980) Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west coast of Barbados. Bull Mar Sci 30:475–508Google Scholar
  122. Smith RL, Paulson AC (1974) Food transit times and gut pH in two Pacific parrotfish. Copeia 3:769–799Google Scholar
  123. Smith RL, Paulson AC (1975) Carbonic anhydrase in some coral reef fishes: adaptation to carbonate ingestion? Comp Biochem Physiol 50A:131–134Google Scholar
  124. Smith SV (1973) Carbon dioxide dynamics: a record of organic carbon production, respiration, and calcification in the Eniwetok reef flat community. Limnol Oceanogr 18:106–20Google Scholar
  125. Soliman GN (1969) ecological aspects of some coral-boring gastropods and bivalves of the northwestern Red Sea Am Zool 9:887–894Google Scholar
  126. Stearn CW, Scoffin TP (1977) Carbonate budget of a fringing reef, Barbados. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:471–476Google Scholar
  127. Stephenson W, Searle RB (1960) Experimental studies on the ecology of intertidal environments at Heron Island. Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 11:241–267Google Scholar
  128. Taylor JD (1971) Intertidal zonation at Aldabra Atoll. Philos Trans R Soc London B Ser 260:173–213Google Scholar
  129. Thompson TE (1960) Defensive acid-secretion in marine gastropods. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 39:115–134Google Scholar
  130. Thompson TE (1961) Acid secretion in British Cowries. Proc Malacol Soc Lond 34:210–211Google Scholar
  131. Thorne MJ (1967) Homing in the chiton Acanthozostera gemmata (Blainville). Proc R Soc Queensl 79:79–108Google Scholar
  132. Torgersen T, Chivas AR, Chapman A (1983) Chemical and isotopic characterisation and sedimentation rates in Princess Charlotte Bay Queensland. BMR J Aust Geol Geophys 8:191–200Google Scholar
  133. Trudgill ST (1976) The marine erosion of limestone on Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Z Geomorphol (Suppl) 26:164–200Google Scholar
  134. Trudgill ST (1983a) Preliminary estimates of intertidal limestone erosion, One Tree Island, Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Earth Surface Proc Landforms 8:189–193Google Scholar
  135. Trudgill ST (1983b) Measurement of rates of erosion of reefs and reef limestones. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 256–262Google Scholar
  136. Vivien ML, Peyrot-Clausade M (1974) Comparative study of the feeding behaviour of three coral reef fishes (Holocentridae), with special reference to the Polychaeta of the reef cryptofauna as prey. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:179–92Google Scholar
  137. Wallace CC (1983) Visible and invisible coral recruitment. In Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (ed) Proceedings of the Inaugural Great Barrier Reef Conference, Townsville 1983. JCU, Townsville, pp 259–261Google Scholar
  138. Warme JE (1975) Borings as trace fossils, and the processes of marine bioerosion. In: Frey RW (ed) The study of trace fossils. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 181–229Google Scholar
  139. Warme JE, Marshall NF (1969) Marine borers in calcareous terrigenous rocks of the Pacific Coast. Am Zool 9:765–774Google Scholar
  140. Wilkinson CR (1983) Role of sponges in coral reef structural processes. In: Barnes DJ (ed) Perspectives on coral reefs. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 263–274Google Scholar
  141. Wulff JL, Buss LW (1979) Do sponges help hold coral reefs together? Nature 281:474–475Google Scholar
  142. Yonge CM (1963) The biology of coral reefs. In: Russell FS (ed) Advances in marine biology, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 209–260Google Scholar
  143. Ziegler B, Rietschel S (1970) Phylogenetic relationships of fossil calcisponges. In: Frey WG (ed) Symp Zool Soc London 25:23–40Google Scholar
  144. Zottoli RA, Carriker MR (1974) Burrow morphology, tube formation, and microarchitecture of shell dissolution by the spionid polychaete Polydora websteri. Mar Biol 27:307–316Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Hutchings
    • 1
  1. 1.The Invertebrate DivisionThe Australian MuseumSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations