Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 311–322 | Cite as

Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Heterosexual jealousy behavior

  • D. D. CubicciottiIII
  • W. A. Mason
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    In nature, titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch) are typically found in small ‘family-type’ groups, the nucleus of which is an adult male and female that form strong and abiding emotional attachments to one another.

     
  2. 2.

    To further understand the behavioral basis for this monogamous patern, the present experiment investigated the possibility that a mechanism tending to prevent accretions to the minimal male-female unit is ‘jealous behavior,’ defined as a specific set of spatial and agonistic responses occurring when a subject encounters its mate in proximity to a perceived competitor or rival. Ten adult titi monkeys housed in heterosexual pairs were observed in three sets of test conditions, one of which (Cagemate vs. Intruder) presented the subject's mate in three levels of increasing proximity to a stranger of the subject's sex (intruder). A parallel set of ‘control’ conditions (Opposite-Sex Stranger vs. Intruder) and three Single-Stimulus conditions were also presented. To provide comparative data on jealousy behavior in a nonmonogamous primate, ten adult squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed in malefemale pairs were tested in the same circumstances.

     
  3. 3.

    Results from the jealousy conditions indicated a large, unanticipated sex difference in Callicebus. Male titis displayed a marked enhancement of attraction to the mate and an increment in agonism toward the intruder as a function of increasing proximity of intruder and mate (Fig. 3a). Female titis, however, showed an opposite reaction, displaying highest levels of attraction to the mate when the intruder was most distant (Fig. 3b). Neither sex of Saimiri showed significant jealousy reactions (Fig. 3c and d). Results from the Single-Stimulus conditions corroborated previous data indicating that basic attractions between male-female cagemates are both stronger and more specific in Callicebus than in Saimiri (Fig. 2).

     
  4. 4.

    The sex difference in reactions to jealousy conditions found for titis in our experiment is consistent with available field notes on their behavior in the wild, and is interpreted in terms of the particular contingencies of male and female reproductive success in a monogamous social system. In particular, it is suggested that jealousy behavior in monogamous males reduces the likelihood of being cuckolded.

     

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldwin, J.D.: The social organization of a semifree-ranging troop of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Folia Primatol. (Basel) 14, 23–50 (1971)Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, J.D., Baldwin, J.I.: Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. Primates 12, 45–61 (1971)Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, J.D., Baldwin, J.I.: The ecology and behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in a natural forest in western Panama. Folia Primatol. (Basel) 18, 161–184 (1972)Google Scholar
  4. Coe, C.L., Rosenblum, L.A.: Sexual segregation and its ontogeny in squirrel monkey social structure. J. Hum. Evol. 3, 551–561 (1974)Google Scholar
  5. Cubicciotti, D., III, Mason, W.A.: Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Male-female emotional attachments. Behav. Biol. 16, 185–197 (1975)Google Scholar
  6. Kummer, H.: Social organization of hamadryas baboons. Bibliotheca Primatologica, No. 6, pp. 1–189. New York: Karger 1968Google Scholar
  7. Kummer, H.: Dominance versus possession: An experiment on hamadryas baboons. In: Symp. IVth Int. Congr. Primat., Vol. 1: Precultural primate behavior (ed. E.W. Menzel, Jr.), pp. 226–231, Basel: Karger 1973Google Scholar
  8. Kummer, H., Götz, W., Angst, W.: Triadic differentiation: An inhibitory process protecting pair bonds in baboons. Behaviour 49, 62–87 (1974)Google Scholar
  9. Mason, W.A.: Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus moloch: A preliminary report. Tulane Stud. Zool. 13, 23–28 (1966)Google Scholar
  10. Mason, W.A.: Use of space by Callicebus groups. In: Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability (ed. P.C. Jay), pp. 200–216. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston 1968Google Scholar
  11. Mason, W.A.: Field and laboratory studies of social organization in Saimiri and Callicebus. In: Primate behavior, Vol. 2: Developments in field and laboratory research (ed. L.A. Rosenblum), pp. 107–137. New York: Academic 1971Google Scholar
  12. Mason, W.A.: Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Behavior of malefemale pairs. Folia Primatol. (Basel) 22, 1–8 (1974)Google Scholar
  13. Mason, W.A.: Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Strength and specificity of attraction between male-female cagemates. Folia Primatol. (Basel) 23, 113–123 (1975)Google Scholar
  14. Mason, W.A., Epple, G.: Social organization in experimental groups of Saimiri and Callicebus. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Primatol., Vol. 1, pp. 59–65, Basel: Karger 1969Google Scholar
  15. Myers, J.L.: Fundamentals of experimental design. Second Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon 1973Google Scholar
  16. Phillips, M.J., Mason, W.A.: Comparative studies of social behavior in. Callicebus and Saimiri: Social looking in male-female pairs. Bull. Psychonom. Soc. 7, 55–56 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. Robinson, J.G.: Vocal regulation of spacing in the titi monkey Callicebus moloch. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina 1977Google Scholar
  18. Thorington, R.W., Jr.: Observations of squirrel monkeys in a Colombian forest. In: The squirrel monkey (eds. L.A. Rosenblum, R.W. Cooper), pp. 69–85. New York: Academic 1968Google Scholar
  19. Trivers, R.L.: Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971 (ed. B. Campbell), pp. 136–179. Chicago: Aldine 1972Google Scholar
  20. Vaitl, E.A., Mason, W.A., Taub, D.M., Anderson, C.O.: Contrasting effects of living in heterosexual paris and mixed groups on the structure of social attraction in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). Anim. Behav. (in press) (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. CubicciottiIII
    • 1
  • W. A. Mason
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations