Effects and biotransformation of 4-dimethylaminophenol in man and dog
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The cyanide antidote 4-dimethylaminophenol · HCl (DMAP) was administered orally, i.v., or i.m. to man and dog. Ferrihemoglobin formation and changes of several parameters in human blood were investigated to obtain information on damage to liver, kidney, muscle, and red blood cells; in addition, the metabolism of DMAP was studied.
In dogs, the initial rate of ferrihemoglobin production (DMAP, 3.25 mg/kg i.v. or i.m., 15 mg/kg orally) amounted to 28%, 3.5%, and 2% of the total hemoglobin per min; the corresponding values for man were 9%, 2%, and 2% per min. The dogs behaved normally while CPK increased after i.m. injection.
In man, only i.m. injection of DMAP (3.25 mg/kg) was followed by increases in LDH, GOT, and CPK of 110, 260, and 490%, resp.; while total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, and iron concentration rose by 270,120, and 50%, respectively. Bilirubin and iron concentration increased also after DMAP i.v. (3.25 mg/kg) or when it was taken orally (600 or 900 mg). The lactate concentration was not influenced while the pyruvate concentration increased by 50%. DMAP produced hemolysis in vitro. Generally, the values determined in vivo approached the starting level within 1 week. Intramuscular injection of DMAP induced reversible subjective and objective symptoms, e.g., local pain, swollen buttock, fever reaction. The urine showed no pathological changes. About 54% of DMAP taken orally was excreted as metabolites in the urine, 41% as glucuronide, 7% as sulfate, and 6% as thioethers. After i.v. administration the total of metabolites was somewhat higher, and the thioether proportion was 15%. The results indicate that DMAP is readily absorbed after oral administration but undergoes significant first pass effect in the liver. Therefore, the 4-fold i.v. dose must be administered orally to achieve the same ferrihemoglobin formation.
Key words4-Dimethylaminophenol Ferrihemoglobin Metabolism
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