Archives of Toxicology

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 253–264 | Cite as

A developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity evaluation of FD and C Red Dye #3 (erythrosine) in rats

  • Charles V. Vorhees
  • Richard E. Butcher
  • Robert L. Brunner
  • Virginia Wootten
  • Thomas J. Sobotka


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate FD and C Red Dye #3 for its developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing the dye for 2 weeks and were then bred. The diets were continued for the females throughout gestation and lactation and were provided continuously to their offspring thereafter. The treatment groups for Experiment 1 were Red Dye #3 as 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0% of the diet (w/w), and a positive control group treated with the toxin hydroxyurea on days 2–10 of life (50 mg/kg/day, s.c.); Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with the same dose groups, but without the positive control group. Parental animals were evaluated for weight and food consumption, and females for reproductive success. The offspring were assessed on a series of tests using the Cincinnati Psychoteratogenicity Screening Test Battery, plus weight, food consumption, physical landmarks of development, and brain weight. Red-3 produced no reductions in parental or offspring weight or food consumption. Red-3 significantly increased preweaning offspring mortality in the first experiment, but not in the second. Behaviorally, Red-3 produced no dose-dependent effects that replicated across the two experiments. It was concluded that no evidence was obtained that dietary exposure to FD and C Red Dye #3 (erythrosine) is psycho toxic to developing rats.

Key words

Developmental toxicity Developmental psychotoxicity FD and C Red Dye #3 Erythrosine Rats Erythrosin B 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles V. Vorhees
    • 1
  • Richard E. Butcher
    • 1
  • Robert L. Brunner
    • 1
  • Virginia Wootten
    • 1
  • Thomas J. Sobotka
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychoteratology Laboratory, Institute for Developmental ResearchChildren's Hospital Research FoundationCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Neurobehavioral Toxicology Laboratory, Division of ToxicologyBureau Foods, Food and Drug AdministrationWashingtonUSA

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