Advertisement

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 241–251 | Cite as

Territoriality: The relation of ranging pattern and home range size to defendability, with an analysis of territoriality among primate species

  • John C. Mitani
  • Peter S. Rodman
Article

Summary

  1. 1.

    Existing theory suggests that territoriality will evolve when resources are limited and defendable, but defendability has seldom been analyzed quantitatively.

     
  2. 2.

    Here we argue that defendability depends on the ability of an animal to monitor the boundaries of its range in order to detect potential intruders and introduce an index of defendability (D) which is the ratio of observed daily path length (d) to an area equal to the diameter (d′) of a circle with area equal to home range area of the animal. This index is sensitive only to extreme deviation from circular shape.

     
  3. 3.

    Review of the literature on primate ranging reveals that all territorial groups for which data are available have an index of 1.0 or greater, and that few nonterritorial species have an index of 1.0 or greater.

     
  4. 4.

    Regression analysis of the relationship of daily path length to feeding group weight and foliage in the diet reveals that both feeding group weight and foliage in the diet account for a large proportion of the variance in daily path length, and that territorial and nonterritorial groups do not differ in day range for a given group weight and diet.

     

Keywords

Regression Analysis Path Length Range Size Home Range Primate Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, S., Altmann, J.: Baboon ecology: African field research. Chicago: Chicago University 1970Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, J.D., Baldwin, J.: The ecology and behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in a natural forest in Western Panama. Folia Primatol. 18, 161–184 (1972)Google Scholar
  3. Brown, J.L.: The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems. Wilson Bull. 76, 160–169 (1964)Google Scholar
  4. Carpenter, C.R.: Territoriality: A review of concepts and problems. In: Behavior and evolution. Roe, A., Simpson, G.G. (eds.), pp. 224–250. New Haven: Yale University 1958Google Scholar
  5. Chivers, D.: On the daily behavior and spacing of howling monkey groups. Folia Primatol. 10, 48–102 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Chivers, D.: The siamang and the gibbon in the Malay Peninsula. In: Gibbon and siamang, Vol. I Rumbaugh, D. (ed.), pp. 103–135. Basel: Karger 1972Google Scholar
  7. Chivers, D.: The siamang in Malaya. Contrib. Primatol. 4, 1–335 (1974)Google Scholar
  8. Clutton-Brock, T., Harvey, P.: Species differences in feeding and ranging behaviour in primates. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 557–584. London: Academic 1977aGoogle Scholar
  9. Clutton-Brock, T., Harvey, P.: Primate ecology and social organization. J. Zool. Lond. 183, 1–39 (1977b)Google Scholar
  10. Crook, J.: Sexual selection, dimorphism, and social organization in the primates. In: Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971. Campbell, B. (ed.), pp. 231–281. Chicago: Aldine 1972Google Scholar
  11. Dunbar, R., Dunbar, E.P.: Ecological relations and niche separation between sympatric terrestrial primates in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol. 21, 36–60 (1974a)Google Scholar
  12. Dunbar, R., Dunbar, E.P.: Ecology and population dynamics of Colobus guereza in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol 21, 188–208 (1974b)Google Scholar
  13. Fossey, D., Harcourt, A.: Feeding ecology of free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock T. (ed.), pp. 415–447. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  14. Gautier-Hion, A.: Social and ecological features of talapoin monkey — Comparisons with sympatric cercopithecines. In: Comparative ecology and behaviour of primates. Michael, R., Crook, J. (eds.), pp. 147–170. London: Academic 1973Google Scholar
  15. Hall, K.R.L.: Behaviour and ecology of the wild patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas, in Uganda. J. Zool. Lond. 148, 15–87 (1966)Google Scholar
  16. Hamilton, W.J., III, Buskirk, R., Buskirk, W.: Defense of space and resources by Chacma (Papio ursinus) baboon troops in an African desert and swamp. Ecology 57, 1264–1272 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. Hinde, R.: The biological significance of the territories of birds. Ibis 98, 340–369 (1956)Google Scholar
  18. Hladik, C., Charles-Dominique, P.: The behaviour and ecology of the sportive lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus) in relation to its dietary peculiarities. In: Prosimian biology. Martin, R., Doyle, G., Walker, A. (eds.), pp. 23–37. London: Duckworth 1974Google Scholar
  19. Hladik, C., Chivers, D.: Concluding discussions: Ecological factors and specific behavioural patterns determining primate diet. In: Recent advances in primatology, Vol. I. Chivers, D., Herbert, J. (eds.), pp. 433–444. London: Academic 1978Google Scholar
  20. Horn, H.: The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in the brewers blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus). Ecology 49, 682–694 (1968)Google Scholar
  21. Jay, P.: The ecology and social behavior of the Indian Langur monkey. Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago (1963)Google Scholar
  22. Kinzey, W.: Diet and feeding behaviour of Callicebus torquatus. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 127–151. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  23. Kinzey, W., Rosenberger, A., Heisler, P., Prowse, D., Trilling, J.: A preliminary field investigation of the yellow handed titi monkey, Callicebus torquatus torquatus, in Northern Peru. Primates 18, 159–181 (1977)Google Scholar
  24. Lindburg, D.: The rhesus monkey in North India: An ecological and behavioral study. In: Primate behavior: Developments in field and laboratory research. Rosenblum, L. (ed.), pp. 1–196. New York: Academic 1971Google Scholar
  25. Lindburg, D.: Feeding behaviour and diet of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a Siwalik in North India. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 223–249. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  26. Marler, P.: Colobus guereza: Territoriality and group composition. Science 163, 93–95 (1969)Google Scholar
  27. Mason, W.: Use of space by Callicebus groups. In: Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability. Jay, P. (ed.), pp. 200–216. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston 1968Google Scholar
  28. Napier, J., Napier, P.: A handbook of living primates. London: Academic 1967Google Scholar
  29. Neville, M.: The population structure of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela. Folia Primatol. 17, 56–86 (1972a)Google Scholar
  30. Neville, M.: Social relations within troops of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Folia Primatol. 18, 47–77 (1972b)Google Scholar
  31. Noble, G.: The role of dominance in the social life of birds. Auk 56, 263–273 (1939)Google Scholar
  32. Oates, J.: The guereza and its food. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 275–321. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  33. Pitelka, F.: Numbers, breeding schedule, and territory in pectoral sandpipers of Northern Alaska. Condor 61, 233–264. (1959)Google Scholar
  34. Pollock, J.: Field observations on Indri indri: A preliminary report. In: Lemur biology. Tattersall, I, Sussman, R. (eds.), pp. 287–311. New York: Plenum 1975Google Scholar
  35. Pollock, J.: The ecology and sociology of feeding in Indri indri. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 37–69. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  36. Richard, A.: The feeding behaviour of Propithecus verreauxi. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 71–96. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  37. Rodman, P.: Feeding behaviour of orang-utans of the Kutai Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 383–413. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  38. Rowell, T.: Forest living baboons in Uganda. J. Zool. Lond. 149, 344–364 (1966)Google Scholar
  39. Smith, C.C.: Feeding behaviour and social organization in howling monkeys. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 97–126. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  40. Stoltz, L., Saayman, G.: Ecology and behaviour of baboons in the Northern Transvaal. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 26, 99–143 (1970)Google Scholar
  41. Struhsaker, T.: Ecology of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the Masai-Amboseli game reserve, Kenya. Ecology 48, 891–904 (1967)Google Scholar
  42. Struhsaker, T.: Correlates of ranging behavior in a group of red colobus monkeys (Colobus badius tephrosceles). Am. Zool. 14, 177–184 (1974)Google Scholar
  43. Struhsaker, T.: The red colobus monkey. Chicago: Chicago University 1975Google Scholar
  44. Struhsaker, T.: Food habits of five monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In: Recent advances in primatology, Vol. I. Chivers, D., Herbert, J. (eds.), pp. 225–248. London: Academic 1978Google Scholar
  45. Sugiyama, Y.: Characteristics of the social life of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Primates 12, 247–266 (1971)Google Scholar
  46. Sussman, R.: Feeding behaviour of Lemur catta and Lemur fulvus. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 1–36. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  47. Sussman, R., Richard, A.: The role of aggression among diurnal prosimians. In: Primate aggression, territoriality and xenophobia. Holloway, R. (ed.), pp. 49–76. London: Academic 1974Google Scholar
  48. Tattersall, I., Sussman, R.: Observations on the ecology and behavior of the mongoose lemur, Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus (Primates, Lemuriformes) at Ampijoroa, Madagascar. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 59, 193–216 (1975)Google Scholar
  49. Waser, P.: Feeding, ranging and group size in the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. In: Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. Clutton-Brock, T. (ed.), pp. 183–222. London: Academic 1977Google Scholar
  50. Wrangham, R.: Behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge (1975)Google Scholar
  51. Yoshiba, K.: An ecological study of hanuman langurs, Presbytis entellus. Primates 8, 127–154 (1967)Google Scholar
  52. Yoshiba, K.: Local and intertroop variability in ecology and social behavior of common Indian langurs. In: Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability. Jay, P. (ed.), pp. 217–242. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston 1968Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Mitani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter S. Rodman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.California Primate Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations