Age-specific survivorship in relation to clutch size and fledging success in California gulls
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Data from a natural population of California gulls (Larus californicus) demonstrated that increasing reproductive effort with age was associated with reduced survivorship. Number of offspring fledged but not clutch size was inversely related to adult survivorhip indicating that reproductively induced mortality resulted from the cumulative effects of the entire breeding season. Agerelated increases in fledging success were correlated with increased adult mortality. Young gulls fledged few offspring and had high survival rates. Old gulls tended to fledge more offspring and had low survival rates. However, those old gulls fledging few offspring survived as well as young gulls. Data also invalidate the assumption that survivorship is age-constant in this species.
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