Advertisement

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 159, Issue 4, pp 330–335 | Cite as

Insoluble hydrophobin complexes in the walls of Schizophyllum commune and other filamentous fungi

  • Onno M. H. de Vries
  • M. Peter Fekkes
  • Han A. B. Wösten
  • Joseph G. H. Wessels
Original Papers

Abstract

Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted with formic acid. The hydrophobins can then be dissociated by oxidation with performic acid. However, extraction of the walls with trifluoroacetic acid results in both solubilization and dissociation of the hydrophobin complexes into monomers. This suggests that non-covalent interactions are responsible for formation of these insoluble complexes. Carboxymethylation with iodoacetic acid only occurred after reduction with DTT indicating all cysteines in the monomeric hydrophobins involved in intramolecular disulfide bridges. Abundant proteins with similar properties were found in walls from all other filamentous fungi tested, including the basidiomycetes Pleurotus ostreatus, Coprinus cinereus, Agaricus bisporus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, and Penicillium chrysogenum, and the zygomycete Mucor mucedo.

Key words

Hydrophobins Cell walls Schizophyllum commune hydrophobins in Filamentous fungi hydrophobins in Trifluoroacetic acid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beever RE, Redgwell RJ, Dempsey GP (1979) Purification and chemical characterization of the rodlet layer of Neurospora crassa conidia. J Bacteriol 140: 1063–1070Google Scholar
  2. Carpenter CE, Mueller RJ, Kazmierczak P, Zhang Z, VanAlfen NK (1992) Effect of a virus on accumulation of a tissue-specific cell-surface protein of the fungus Cryphonectria (Endothia) parasitica. Mol Plant-microbe Interact 4: 65–81Google Scholar
  3. Creighton TE (1989) Disulphide bonds between cysteine residues. In: Creighton TE (ed) Protein structure — a practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 155–167Google Scholar
  4. Chamberlain JP (1979) Fluorographic detection of radioactivity in polyacrylamide gels with the water-soluble fluor, sodium salicylate. Anal Biochem 98: 132–135Google Scholar
  5. DeVries OMH, Kooistra WHCF, Wessels JGH (1986) Formation of an extracellular laccase by a Schizophyllum commune dikaryon. J Gen Microbiol 132: 2817–2826Google Scholar
  6. Dons JJM, deVries OMH, Wessels JGH (1979) Characterization of the genome of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Biochim Biophys Acta 563: 100–112Google Scholar
  7. Dons JJM, Springer J, deVries SC, Wessels JGH (1984) Molecular cloning of a gene abundantly expressed during fruiting body initiation in Schizophyllum commune. J Bacteriol 157: 802–808Google Scholar
  8. Hollecker M (1989) Counting integral numbers of residues by chemical modification. In: Creighton TE (ed) Protein structure — a practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 145–153Google Scholar
  9. Mulder GH, Wessels JGH (1986) Molecular cloning of RNAs differentially expressed in monokaryons and dikaryons of Schizophyllum commune in relation to fruiting. Exp Mycol 10: 214–227Google Scholar
  10. Russo PS, Blum FD, Ispen JD, Abul-Hajj YJ, Miller WG (1982) The surface activity of the phytotoxin cerato-ulmin. Can J Bot 60: 1414–1422Google Scholar
  11. Schuren FHJ, Wessels JGH (1990) Two genes specifically expressed in fruiting dikaryons of Schizophyllum commune: homologies with a gene not regulated by mating type genes. Gene 90: 199–205Google Scholar
  12. Stevenson KJ, Slater JA, Takai S (1979) Cerato-ulmin, a wilting toxin of dutch elm disease fungus. Phytochemistry 18: 235–238Google Scholar
  13. Stringer MA, Dean RA, Sewall TC, Timberlake WE (1991) Rodletness, a new Aspergillus developmental mutation induced by directed gene inactivation. Genes Develop 5: 1161–1171Google Scholar
  14. Wessels JGH, Kreger DR, Marchant R, Regensburg BA, DeVries OMH (1972) Chemical and morphological characterization of the hyphal wall surface of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Biochim Biophys Acta 273: 346–358Google Scholar
  15. Wessels JGH, deVries OMH, Asgeirsdottir SA, Schuren FHJ (1991a) Hydrophobin genes involved in formation of aerial hyphae and fruit bodies in Schizophyllum. Plant Cell 3: 793–799Google Scholar
  16. Wessels JGH, deVries OMH, Asgeirsdottir SA, Springer J (1991b) The thn mutation of Schizophyllum commune, which suppresses formation of aerial hyphae, affects expression of the Sc3 hydrophobin gene. J Gen Microbiol 137: 2439–2445Google Scholar
  17. Bell-Pedersen D, Dunlap JC, Lords JJ (1992) The Neurospora circadian clock-controlled gene, ccg-2 is allelic to eas and encodes a fungal hydrophobin required for formation of the conidial rodlet layer. Genes Develop 6: 2382–2394Google Scholar
  18. Lauter F-R, Russo VEA, Yanofsky C (1992) Developmental and light regulation of eas, the structural gene for the rodlet protein of Neurospora. Genes Develop 6: 2373–2381Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Onno M. H. de Vries
    • 1
  • M. Peter Fekkes
    • 1
  • Han A. B. Wösten
    • 1
  • Joseph G. H. Wessels
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Biological CenterUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations