Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 21–30 | Cite as

Isozymes and classification of Asian rice varieties

  • J. C. Glaszmann


Enzyme variation detected by starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic structure of Oryza sativa L. species. Fifteen polymorphic loci coding for 8 enzymes were surveyed among 1688 traditional rices from Asia. Multivariate analysis of the data resulted in identification of six varietal groups, with two major ones, groups I and VI, two minor ones, groups II and V, and two satellite ones, groups III and IV. Group I is found throughout tropical Asia; it encompasses most Aman rices in Bangladesh, the Tjereh rices in Indonesia and the Hsien rices in China. Group VI is found mostly in temperate regions and in high elevation areas in the tropics; it encompasses most upland rices from Southeast Asia, the Bulu rices from Indonesia and the Keng rices from China. Groups II, III, IV and V share common differences from groups I and VI which suggest an alternative evolutionary history. Groups II and V are found in the Indian subcontinent from Iran to Burma. Well-known components of these are Aus rices from Bangladesh for group II and Basmati rices from Pakistan and India for group V. Groups III and IV are restricted to some deepwater rices in Bangladesh and Northeast India. Based on analogy with other classifications, Group I might be considered as the “Indica” type and Group VI as the “Japonica” type. Such terms, however, have a depreciated meaning due to discrepancies among various classifications.

Key words

Rice Isozymes Varietal classification Asia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chang TT (1976) The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination and diversification of Asian and African rices. Euphytica 25:425–441Google Scholar
  2. Chang TT, Bardenas EA (1965) The morphology and varietal characteristics of the rice plant. IRRI Tech Bull 4, 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng KS, Wang XK, Zhou JW, Lu YX, Lou J, Huang HW (1984) Studies on indigenous rices in Yunnan and their utilization. 2. A revised classification of Asian cultivated rice (in Chinese). Acta Agron Sin 10:271–280Google Scholar
  4. Chu YE (1967) Variations in peroxidase isozymes of Oryza perennis and O. sativa. Jpn J Genet 42:233–240Google Scholar
  5. Engle LM, Chang TT, Ramirez DA (1969) The cytogenetics of sterility in F1 hybrids of Indica x lndica and Indica × Javanica varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Philipp Agric 53:289–307Google Scholar
  6. Fu PY, Pai C (1979) Genetic studies on isozymes in rice plant. 2. Classification and geographical distribution of cultivated rice through isozyme studies (in Chinese with English summary). J Agric Assoc China 107:1–16Google Scholar
  7. Glaszmann JC (1985) A varietal classification of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) based on isozyme polymorphism. In: Rice genetics. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp 83–90Google Scholar
  8. Glaszmann JC, Benoit H, Arnaud M (1984) Classification des riz cultivés (Oryza sativa L.). Utilisation de la variabilité isoenzymatique. Agron Trop (Paris) 39:51–66Google Scholar
  9. Husain I, Akbar M (1981) Genetic conservation of rice in Pakistan. Pakistan J Agric Res 2:64–67Google Scholar
  10. IBPGR-IRRI Rice Advisory Committee (1980) “Descriptors for rice” (Oryza sativa L.). IRRI, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  11. Jacquot M, Arnaud M (1979) Classification numérique de variétiés de riz. Agron Trop (Paris) 33:157–173Google Scholar
  12. Kato S, Kosaka H, Hara S (1928) On the affinity of rice varieties as shown by the fertility of rice plants. Centr Agric Inst Kyushu Imp Univ 2:241–276Google Scholar
  13. Matsuo T (1952) Genecological studies on cultivated rice (in Japanese). Bull Nat Inst Agric Sci Jpn D 3:1–111Google Scholar
  14. Morinaga T (1954) Classification of rice varieties on the basis of affinity. In: International Rice Commission, Working Party on Rice Breeding. Rep 5th Meeting, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  15. Morinaga T (1968) Origin and geographical distribution of Japanese rice. JARQ 3:1–5Google Scholar
  16. Morishima H, Oka HI (1981) Phylogenetic differentiation of cultivated rice. 22. Numerical evaluation of the Indica Japonica differentiation. Jpn J Breed 31:402–413Google Scholar
  17. Nakagahra M (1977) Genic analysis for esterase isozymes in rice cultivars. Jpn J Breed 27:141–148Google Scholar
  18. Nakagahra M, Akihama T, Hayashi KI (1975) Genetic variation and geographic cline of esterase isozymes in native rice varieties. Jpn J Genet 50:373–380Google Scholar
  19. Nei M (1975) Molecular population genetics and evolution. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Oka HI (1958) Intervarietal variation and classification of cultivated rice. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 18:79–89Google Scholar
  21. Oka HI (1983) The Indica-Japonica differentiation of rice cultivars — A review. In: Proc 4th Int SABRAO Cong, pp 117–128Google Scholar
  22. Oka HI, Chang WT (1962) Rice varieties intermediate between wild and cultivated forms and the origin of the Japonica type. Bot Bull Acad Sin 3:109–131Google Scholar
  23. Pai C, Endo T, Oka HI (1973) Genic analysis for peroxidase isozymes and their organ specificity in Oryza perennis and O. sativa. Can J Genet Cytol 15:845–853Google Scholar
  24. Pai C, Endo T, Oka HI (1975) Genic analysis for acid phosphatase isozymes in Oryza perennis and O. sativa. Can J Genet Cytol 17:637–650Google Scholar
  25. Richharia RH (1957) Plant breeding and genetics in India, 2nd edn. Scientific Books, PatnaGoogle Scholar
  26. Second G (1982) Origin of the genic diversity of cultivated rice (Oryza spp.): study of the polymorphism scored at 40 isozyme loci. Jpn J Genet 57:25–57Google Scholar
  27. Second G, Trouslot P (1980) Polymorphisme de 13 zymogrammes observés parmi diverses espèces sauvages et cultivées du genre Oryza. In: Electrophorèse d'enzymes de riz. Travaux et documents de l'ORSTOM, 120, ORSTOM, ParisGoogle Scholar
  28. Shahi BB, Morishima H, Oka HI (1969) A survey of variations in peroxidase, acid phosphatase and esterase isozymes of wild and cultivated Oryza species. Jpn J Genet 44:303–319Google Scholar
  29. Terao H, Mizushima U (1942) Some considerations on the classification of Oryza sativa L. into two subspecies, socalled Japonica and Indica. Jpn J Bot 10:213–258Google Scholar
  30. Virmani SS, Chaudhary RC, Khush GS (1981) Current outlook on hybrid rice. Oryza 18:67–84Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Glaszmann
    • 1
  1. 1.The International Rice Research InstituteManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations