Sex Roles

, Volume 21, Issue 11–12, pp 825–839 | Cite as

Gender differences in the upward mobility of black managers: Double whammy or double advantage?

  • Stella M. Nkomo
  • Taylor CoxJr.

Abstract

This study draws upon the theory and research on intraorganizational mobility to examine gender differences in the upward mobility of black managers. Results suggest that neither the “double whammy” assumptions nor the “double advantage” assumptions are accurate descriptions of the contemporary experience of black female managers in corporate America. Upward mobility rates were nearly identical for both gender groups. Other findings and the implications of the results for future research are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, F. Aspects of social context as determinants of black women's resistance to challenges. Journal of Social Issues, 1983, 39, 69–79.Google Scholar
  2. Aiken, W. The black experience in large public accounting firms. In D. Ford (Ed.), Readings in minority-group relations. La Jolla, CA: University Associates, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J., Milkovich, G., & Tsui, A. A model of intraorganizational mobility. Academy of Management Review, 1981, 6, 529–538.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, H. J. Moderator variables: A clarification of conceptual, analytic, and psychometric issues. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1982, 29, 143–174.Google Scholar
  5. Beehr, T., Taber, & Walsh, J. Perceived mobility channels: Criteria for intraorganizational job mobility. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1980, 26, 250–264.Google Scholar
  6. Benjamin, L. Black women achievers: An isolated elite. Sociological Inquiry, 1982, 52, 141–151.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, H., & Ford, D. An exploratory analysis of discrimination in the employment of black MBA graduates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1977, 6, 50–56.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, T., & Nkomo, S. Differential performance appraisal criteria: A field study of black and white managers. Group and Organization Studies, 1986, 11, 101–119.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, G., & Watson, G. Black life in corporate America: Swimming in the mainstream. New York: Doubleday, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. Dickens, F., & Dickens, J. The black manager: Making it in the corporate world. New York: Amacom, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. Epstein, C. Positive effects of the multiple negative: Explaining the success of black professional women. American Journal of Sociology, 1973, 78, 913–935.Google Scholar
  12. Fernandez, J. Black managers in white corporations. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Fernandez, J. Racism and sexism in corporate life. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Company, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. Fleming, J. Fear of success in black male and female graduate students: A pilot study. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1982, 6, 327–340.Google Scholar
  15. Fox, M. F., & Hesse-Biber, S. Women at work. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. Freedman, S. M., & Phillips, J. S. The changing nature of research on women at work. Journal of Management, 1988, 14, 231–251.Google Scholar
  17. Fulbright, K. The myth of the double-advantage: Black female managers. Review of Black Political Economy, 1985, 14, 33–45.Google Scholar
  18. Gemmill, G., & DeSalvia, D. The promotion beliefs of managers as a factor in career progress: An exploratory study. Sloan Management Review, 1977, 18, 75–81.Google Scholar
  19. Grusky, O. Corporate size, bureaucratization, and managerial succession. American Journal of Sociology, 1961, 67, 261–269.Google Scholar
  20. Jones, E. W. Black managers: the dream deferred. Harvard Business Review, 1986, 64, 84–93.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, D., Goodale, J., Rabinowitz, S., & Morgan, M. Effects of top down departmental and job change upon perceived employee behavior and attitudes: A natural field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1978, 63, 62–73.Google Scholar
  22. Harlan, A., & Weiss, C. Sex differences in factors affecting managerial career advancement. In P. Wallace (Ed.), Women in the workplace: Boston. Auburn Publishing Company, 1982.Google Scholar
  23. Hitt, M., Zikmund, W., & Pickens, B. Discrimination in industrial employment: An investigation of race and sex bias among professionals. Work and Occupations, 1982, 9, 217–231.Google Scholar
  24. Irons, E., & Moore, G. Black managers: The case of the banking industry. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985.Google Scholar
  25. Kanter, R. A tale of “o”: On being different in an organization. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.Google Scholar
  26. King, M. Oppression and power: The unique status of the black woman in the American political system. Social Science Quarterly, 1975, 56, 123–133.Google Scholar
  27. Kram, K. E. Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1985.Google Scholar
  28. Landau, J., & Amoss, L. Myths, dreams and disappointments: Preparing women for the future. In L. Moore (Ed.). Not as far as you think. Lexington, MA: Lexington Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  29. Ladner, J. Tomorrow's tomorrow: The black woman. New York: Doubleday, 1971.Google Scholar
  30. Larwood, L., & Gattiker, U. A comparison of career paths used by successful women and men, In L. Larwood & B. Gutek (Eds.), Women's career development. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987.Google Scholar
  31. Larwood, L., & Gutek, B. (Eds.), Women's career development. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987.Google Scholar
  32. Larwood, L., Azwajkowski, E., & Rose, S. Sex and race discrimination resulting from managerclient relationships: Applying rational bias theory of managerial discrimination. Sex Roles, 1987, 18, 9–29.Google Scholar
  33. Larwood, L., & Wood, M. Women in management. Lexington, MA: D. C. Health, 1977.Google Scholar
  34. Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, 24–33.Google Scholar
  35. Miner, J. B. Motivation to manage among women: Studies of college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1974, 5, 241–250.Google Scholar
  36. Nieva, V., & Gutek, B. Women and work: a psychological perspective. New York: Praeger, 1982.Google Scholar
  37. Nkomo, S. Race and sex: The forgotten case of the black female manager. In S. Rose & L. Larwood (Eds.). Women's careers: pathways and pitfalls. New York: Praeger, 1988.Google Scholar
  38. Pedigo, P., & Meyer, H. Management promotion decisions: The influence of affirmative action restrictions. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. Rousell, C. The relationships of sex of department heads to department climate. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1974, 19, 211–220.Google Scholar
  40. Slocum, J. W., Cron, W. L., Hansen, R. W., & Rawlings, S. Business strategy and the management of plateaued employees. Academy of Management, 1985, 28, 133–154.Google Scholar
  41. Stewart, L. P., & Gudykunst, W. B. Differential factors influencing the hierarchical level and number of promotions of males and females within an organization. Academy of Management Journal, 1982, 25, 586–597.Google Scholar
  42. Taylor, R. Preferences of industrial managers for information sources in making promotion decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, 60, 269–272.Google Scholar
  43. Thomas, D. An intra-organizational analysis of black and white patterns of sponsorship and dynamics of cross-racial mentoring. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1986.Google Scholar
  44. Thompson, D., & DiTomasso, N.. Ensuring minority success in corporate management. New York: Plenum Publishing, 1988.Google Scholar
  45. Tsui, A., & Gutek, B. A role set analysis of gender differences in performance, affective relationships, and career success of industrial middle managers. Academy of Management Journal, 1984, 27, 619–635.Google Scholar
  46. Weathers, D. Black executives: Winning under the double whammy. Savvy, 1981, 2, 34–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stella M. Nkomo
    • 1
  • Taylor CoxJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.University of North Carolina at CharlotteUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganUSA

Personalised recommendations