Acta Informatica

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 63–85 | Cite as

A characterization of context-free string languages by directed node-label controlled graph grammars

  • D. Janssens
  • G. Rozenberg


Directed node-label controlled graph grammars (DNLC grammars) are sequential graph rewriting systems. In a direct derivation step of a DNLC grammar a single node is rewritten. Both the rewriting of a node and the embedding of a “daughter graph” in a “host graph” are controlled by the labels of nodes only. We study the use of those grammars to define string languages. In particular we provide a characterization of the class of context-free string languages in terms of DNLC grammars.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Claus, V., Ehrig, H., Rozenberg, G. (Eds.): Graph grammars and their application to computer science and biology. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 73, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1979Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ehrig, H.: Introduction to the algebraic theory of graph grammars. 1–69. In [1] (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehrenfeucht, A., Rozenberg, G.: The sequence equivalence problem is decidable for OS systems. J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. (in press, 1981)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Janssens, D., Rozenberg, G.: Restrictions, extensions and variations of NLC grammars. Information Sci. 20, 217–244 (1980)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nagl, M.: Graph-Grammatiken. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg 1979Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rosenfeld, A.: Picture languages. New York-London: Academic Press 1979Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salomaa, A.: Formal languages, New York-London: Academic Press 1973Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Janssens
    • 1
  • G. Rozenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of Antwerp, U.I.A.Belgium
  2. 2.Institute of Applied Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of LeidenRA LeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations