Sex Roles

, Volume 19, Issue 11–12, pp 771–783 | Cite as

Client gender and sex-typed nonverbal behavior: Impact on impression formation

  • Rita Rachkowski
  • Kevin E. O'Grady


The influence of sex-typed nonverbal behavior of male and female clients on college students' perceptions was investigated. In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, 156 male and female college students were exposed to a videotaped interview during which either a male or female client displayed either masculine or feminine sex-typed nonverbal behaviors. Subjects rated the perceived characteristics, prognosis for improvement, and problems of the client. Hypothesized main effects for client gender and sex-typed nonverbal behavior did not obtain. However, the hypothesized client gender by sex-typed nonverbal behavior interaction was found. This result was due primarily to a pervasive tendency to stigmatize the female clients displaying masculine sex-typed behaviors, in comparison to male clients displaying these same behaviors. Possible explanations and implications for these observed effects were discussed.


College Student Social Psychology Factorial Design Nonverbal Behavior Behavior Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Rachkowski
    • 1
  • Kevin E. O'Grady
    • 2
  1. 1.University of New MexicoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MarylandCollege Park

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