Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 18, Issue 11–12, pp 727–738 | Cite as

Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals in heterosexual college students

  • Lawrence A. Kurdek
Article

Abstract

Negative attitudes toward homosexuals were assessed in 103 heterosexual college students. On the average, 17% of the sample agreed or strongly agreed with each of 40 negative statements about homosexuals. Cronbach's alpha and a principal components analysis indicated that the attitude scale was unidimensional. Methodological improvements were made in the assessment of the correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Such attitudes were inversely related to age, academic performance, and the use of principled moral reasoning. They were positively related to traditional attitudes toward men, women, and the equality of men and women. Compared to females, males' attitudes toward homosexuals were more negative, and their attitudes toward men, women, and the equality of men and women were more traditional. However, the correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals were similar for males and for females. It was concluded that negative attitudes toward homosexuals are part of a larger belief system regarding conventional social order.

Keywords

Principal Component Analysis College Student Social Psychology Academic Performance Negative Attitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Black, K. N., & Stevenson, M. R. The relationship of self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 83–94.Google Scholar
  2. Blatt, M., & Kohlberg, L. The effects of classroom moral discussion upon children's level of moral judgment. Journal of Moral Education, 1975, 4, 129–161.Google Scholar
  3. Cerny, J. A., & Polyson, J. Changing homonegative attitudes. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1984, 2, 366–371.Google Scholar
  4. Colby, A., Kohlberg, L., Gibbs, J., & Lieberman, M. A longitudinal study of moral judgment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1983, 48 (1–2, Serial No. 200).Google Scholar
  5. Devlin, P. K., & Cowan, G. A. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1985, 49, 467–473.Google Scholar
  6. Ellis, L., & Ames, M. A. Neurohormonal functioning and sexual orientation: A theory of homosexuality-heterosexuality. Psychological Bulletin, 1987, 101, 233–258.Google Scholar
  7. Herek, G. M. Beyond “homophobia”: A social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 1–22. (a)Google Scholar
  8. Herek, G. M. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A factor-analytic study. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 39–52. (b)Google Scholar
  9. Howard, J. A., Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. Sex, power, and influence tactics in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, 51, 102–109.Google Scholar
  10. Howard, J. A., Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. Social or evalutionary theories? Some observations on preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, 53, 194–200.Google Scholar
  11. Huston, A. C. Sex-typing. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. Kite, M. E. Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuals: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 69–82.Google Scholar
  13. Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. Attitudes toward homosexuality: Assessment and behavioral consequences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 1986, 7, 137–162.Google Scholar
  14. Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1987, 11, 83–96.Google Scholar
  15. Kurdek, L. A. Sex role self schema and psychological adjustment in coupled homosexual and heterosexual men and women. Sex Roles, 1987, 17, 549–562.Google Scholar
  16. Kurdek, L. A., & Schmitt, J. P. Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, gay, and lesbian couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, 51, 711–720.Google Scholar
  17. Leahy, R. L., & Eiter, M. Moral judgment and the development of real and ideal androgynous self image during adolescence and young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 1980, 16, 362–370.Google Scholar
  18. Levitt, E. E., & Klassen, A. D. Public attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 1974, 1, 29–43.Google Scholar
  19. Lubinski, D., Tellegen, A., & Butcher, J. Masculinity, femininity, and androgyny viewed and assessed as distinct concepts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, 44, 428–439.Google Scholar
  20. MacDonald, A. P., Jr., & Games, R. G. Some characteristics of those who hold positive and negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 1974, 1, 9–27.Google Scholar
  21. MacDonald, A. P., Jr., Huggins, J., Young, S., & Swanson, R. A. Attitudes toward homosexuality: Preservation of sex morality or the double standard? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 40, 161.Google Scholar
  22. Millham, J., San Miguel, C. L., & Kellogg, R. A factor-analytic conceptualization of attitudes toward male and female homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 1976, 2, 3–10.Google Scholar
  23. Money, J. Sin, sickness, or status? Homosexual gender identity and psychoneuroendocrinology. American Psychologist, 1987, 42, 384–399.Google Scholar
  24. Orlofsky, J. L. Relationship between sex role attitudes and personality traits and the Sex Role Behavior Scale-1. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 40, 927–940.Google Scholar
  25. Page, S., & Yee, M. Conception of male and female homosexual stereotypes among university undergraduates. Journal of Homosexuality, 1986, 12, 109–118.Google Scholar
  26. Plasek, J. W., & Allard, J. Misconceptions of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 23–38.Google Scholar
  27. Rest, J. Morality. In J. H. Flavell & E. M. Markman (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3. New York: Wiley, 1983.Google Scholar
  28. Serdahely, W. J., & Ziemba, G. J. Changing homophobic attitudes through college sexuality education. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 109–116.Google Scholar
  29. Shields, S. A., & Hariman, R. E. Fear of male homosexuality: Cardiac responses of low and high homonegative males. Journal of Homosexuality, 1984, 10, 53–68.Google Scholar
  30. Smith, K. T. Homophobia: A tentative personality profile. Psychological Reports, 1971, 29, 1091–1094.Google Scholar
  31. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  32. Thompson, E. H., Grisanti, C., & Pleck, J. H. Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates. Sex Roles, 1985, 13, 413–427.Google Scholar
  33. Walter, D. Gays testify on homophobic violence. The Advocate, November 11, 1986, p. 13.Google Scholar
  34. Weinberger, L. E., & Millham, J. Attitudinal homophobia and support of traditional sex roles. Journal of Homosexuality, 1979, 4, 237–245.Google Scholar
  35. Whitley, B. E. The relationship of sex role orientation to heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. Sex Roles, 1987, 17, 103–113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence A. Kurdek
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentWright State UniversityDayton

Personalised recommendations