Sex Roles

, Volume 10, Issue 9–10, pp 677–691

The etiology of children's stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
  • William L. Croll

DOI: 10.1007/BF00287379

Cite this article as:
Birnbaum, D.W. & Croll, W.L. Sex Roles (1984) 10: 677. doi:10.1007/BF00287379


Contemporary preschool-aged children have pronounced sex-role stereotypes about emotionality. They feel that anger is a male characteristic, while fear, sadness, and happiness are female characteristics. Four studies investigated several possible sources of these stereotypes, including parental stereotypes, parental reinforcement practices, television programming, and actual sex-differences in emotionality. The results suggest that each of these sources may potentially contribute to children's stereotypes about emotionality.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana W. Birnbaum
    • 1
  • William L. Croll
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MaineUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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