Transplacental mutagenesis: The micronucleus test on fetal mouse blood
- 65 Downloads
The induction of cytogenetic damage (micronuclei) in mouse fetal blood was studied with four selected mutagens: cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, trenimon, and mitomycin-C. For comparison the standard micronucleus test on maternal bone marrow was also performed. In contrast to the results obtained from maternal bone marrow the changes in the cellular composition in fetal blood were only slight after treatment with mutagens. A significant and dosepdependent increase in the incidence of micronucleated fetal blood cells was found with all four mutagens. The inducibility of micronuclei by indirect mutagens was particularly interesting. The three mutagens other than mitomycin-C induced a higher frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in fetal blood cells than in maternal bone marrow. The results indicate that this modified micronucleus test is well suited and useful for mutagenicity screening of environmental chemicals and especially for assessment of risks to the fetus when pregnant females are exposed to environmental chemicals.
KeywordsInternal Medicine Cyclophosphamide Metabolic Disease Environmental Chemical Mutagenicity Screening
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fahrig, R.: The mammalian spot test: a sensitive in vivo method for the detection of genetic alterations in somatic cells of mice. In: Chemical mutagens, principles and methods for their detection, Vol. 5 (A. Hollaender, F. J. de Serres, eds.), pp. 151–176. New York-London: Plenum Press 1978Google Scholar
- Klose, J.: Protein mapping as a tool for investigating mutagenic and teratogenic effects in mouse embryos. In: New approaches to the evaluation of abnormal embryonic development (D. Neubert, H.-J. Merker, eds.), pp. 375–387. Stuttgart: Thieme 1975Google Scholar
- Larsen, C. D.: Pulmonary-tumor induction by transplacental exposure to urethan. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 8, 63–70 (1947)Google Scholar
- Nau, H., Liddiard, C., Bass, R., Lange, J., Haase, V.: Der diaplazentare Übergang sowie der fetale Metabolismus von Pharmaka in der ersten Hälfte der menschlichen Schwangerschaft. In: Embryotoxikologische Probleme in der Arzneimittelforschung (B. Schnieders, G. Stille, P. Grosdanoff, eds.), pp. 89–96. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer 1978Google Scholar
- Pearse, A. G. E.: Histochemistry, theoretical and applied. London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd. 1968Google Scholar
- Russell, E. S., Bernstein, S. E.: Blood and blood formation. In: Biology of the laboratory mouse (E. L. Green, ed.), pp. 351–372. New York: Dover 1966Google Scholar
- Sehgal, C. B., Hutton, J. J.: Homogenates of pregnant rat and fetal tissues metabolize carcinogens to mutagens detected by Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Mutat. Res. 46, 325–344 (1977)Google Scholar
- Southard, J. L., Wolfe, H. G., Russell, E. S.: Artificial insemination of dystrophic mice with mixtures of spermatozoa. Nature 208, 1126–1127 (1965)Google Scholar