Human Genetics

, Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 101–110 | Cite as

Gm and Km allotypes in 74 Chinese populations: a hypothesis of the origin of the Chinese nation

  • Tongmao Zhao
  • Tsung Dao Lee
Original Investigations


This paper reports the distribution of immunoglobulin Gm and Km allotypes in 74 Chinese geographical populations. These populations are derived from 24 nationalities comprising 96.6% of the total population of China. A total of 9,560 individuals were phenotyped for Gm(1,2,3,5,21) factors, and 9,611 were phenotyped for Km(1). Phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of Gm haplotype frequencies and genetic distances. The results of cluster analysis show the heterogeneity of the Chinese nation, and confirm the hypothesis that the modern Chinese nation originated from two distinct populations, one population originating in the Yellow River valley and the other originating in the Yangtze River valley during early neolithic times (3,000–7,000 years ago). Frequencies of the Gm haplotype of 74 Chinese populations were compared with those of 33 populations from major racial groups. The results suggest that during human evolution, the Negroid group and Caucasoid-Mongoloid group diverged first, followed by a divergence between the Caucasoid and Mongoloid. Interrace divergence is high in comparison with intrarace divergence. There appear to be two distinct subgroups of Mongoloid, northern and southern Mongoloid. The northern and southern Mongoloid have Gm1;21 and Gm1,3;5 haplotypes as race-associate markers, respectively. Furthermore, the Caucasian-associated haplotype Gm3;5 was found in several of the minorities living in the northwest part of China. The presence of the Gm3;5 haplotype is attributed to the Caucasians living in Central Asia throughout the Silk Road. The amount of Caucasian admixture has been estimated. In contrast to the Gm haplotype distribution, Km1 gene frequencies showed a random distribution in the populations studied.


River Valley Chinese Population Racial Group Haplotype Frequency Distinct Subgroup 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tongmao Zhao
    • 1
  • Tsung Dao Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ImmunogeneticsShanghai Institute of Blood TransfusionShanghaiPeople's Republic of China
  2. 2.Holland LaboratoryAmerican Red Cross Blood ServicesRockvilleUSA

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