Marine Geophysical Researches

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 403–426 | Cite as

A seismic reflection study of the External Calabrian Arc in the northern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

  • Sergio Rossi
  • Renzo Sartori
Article

Abstract

The External Calabrian Arc is located off the convex side of the Calabro-Peloritanian Arc in the northern Ionian Sea. A systematic reflection seismic survey indicates that it is made of different structural elements whose characters seem consistent with an active accretionary margin. The main structures are the Crotone-Spartivento slope (comparable to an inner trench slope) and the intermediate depressions (comparable to a trench area). Internal to these elements, the Crotone-Spartivento basin may represent a fore-arc basin. This partly outcrops in Calabria and its structure suggests that the accretionary margin developed at least since middle-upper Miocene.

Subduction processes do not affect a true oceanic crust, because of the great thickness of sediments covering the whole eastern Mediterranean. Hence some peculiar features occur in the system. as the cobblestone topography, or are lacking, as a typical and continuous trench zone.

In the areas with cobblestone topography we distinguish a Calabrian Ridge sensu stricto from a Calabrian Ridge sensu lato. The former is a N-S trending swell, external to the supposed trench zone, interpreted as a sedimentary outer-arc ridge produced by rather surficial tectonic accumulation of sediments further chaoticized by gravitative mechanisms. The Ridge s.l. is a very wide area with low relief and little or no seismic penetration. Tectonization seems gentler than in the Ridge s.s. and structural axes seem to possess different orientations. These areas are interpreted as due to a widespread surficial chaoticization above presumed decollement layers occurring within the sedimentary column of the Ionian bathyal plain.

The pattern of deformations of the Calabrian Ridge seems consistent with the Calabro-Peloritanian Arc actively overriding the eastern Mediterranean, with a resultant direction of movement essentially towards the East.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amodio-Morelli, L., Bonardi, G., Colonna, V., Dietrich, D., Giunta, G., Ippolito, F., Liguori, V., Lorenzoni, S., Paglionico, A., Perrone, V., Piccarretta, G., Russo, M., Scandone, P., Zanettin-Lorenzoni, E., and Zuppetta, A.: 1979, ‘L'Arco Calabro-Peloritano nell'orogene Appenninico-Maghrebide, Memorie Soc. Geologica Italiana 17, 1–60.Google Scholar
  2. Auboin, J.: 1965, Geosynclines, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 335 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Barberi, F., Civetta, L., Gasparini, P., Innocenti, F., Scandone, R., and Villari, L.: 1974, ‘Evolution of a Section of the Africa-Europe Plate Boundary: Paleomagnetic and Volcanological Evidence from Sicily’, Earth Planetary Sci. Letts. 22, 123–132.Google Scholar
  4. Belderson, R. H., Kenyon, H. H., and Stride, A. H.: 1972, ‘Comparison between Narrow-Beam and Conventional Echo-Sounding from the Mediterranean Ridge’, Marine Geology 12, M11–M15.Google Scholar
  5. Belderson, R. H., Kenyon, N. H., and Stride, A. H.: 1974, ‘Calabrian Ridge, a Newly Discovered Branch of the Mediterranean Ridge’, Nature 247, 453–454.Google Scholar
  6. Biju-Duval, B., Letouzey, J., Montadert, L., Courrier, P., Mugniot, J. F., and Sancho, J.: 1974, ‘Geology of the Mediterranean Sea Basins’, in: Drake, C. A. and Burk, C. L. (eds.) The Geology of continental margins, Springer-Verlag, New York, 695–721.Google Scholar
  7. Biju-Duval, B., and Montadert, L.: 1977, ‘Introduction to the Structural History of the Mediterranean Basins’, in: Structural history of the Mediterranean Basins, Editions Technip, Paris, 1–12.Google Scholar
  8. Boccaletti, M., Guazzone, G., and Manetti, P.: 1977, ‘Evoluzione Paleogeografica e Geodinamica del Mediterraneo: i Bacini Marginali’, Memorie Soc. Geologica Italiana 13, 162–199.Google Scholar
  9. Bousquet, J. C.: 1973, ‘La Tectonique Récente de l'Apennin Calabro-Lucanien dans son Cadre Géologique et Géophysique’, Geologica Romana, 12, 1–104.Google Scholar
  10. Burollet, R. F. and Byramjee, R. S.: 1974, ‘Reflexions sur la Tectonique Globale, Exemples Africains et Méditerranéens’, Notes et Mémoires Comp. Française Petrole, 11, 71–120.Google Scholar
  11. Comninakis, P. E. and Papazachos, B. C.: 1972, ‘Seismicity of the Eastern Mediterranean Ridge’, Geol. Soc. of America Bull. 83, 1093–1102.Google Scholar
  12. Del Pezzo, E., Guerra, I., Iannaccone, G., LoBascio, A., Luongo, G., Martini, M., and Scarpa, R.: in press, ‘Struttura Profonda e Dinamica del Basso Tirreno’, Bollettino Soc. Geologica Italiana.Google Scholar
  13. Dickinson, W. R.: 1977, ‘Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of Subduction-Controlled Sedimentary Assemblages’, in: Talwani, M. and Pitman, W. C. III, (eds.), Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches and Back Arc Basins, Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, 33–40.Google Scholar
  14. Emery, K. O., Heezen, B. C., and Allan, T. D.: 1966, ‘Bathymetry of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea’, Deep-Sea Res. 13, 173–192.Google Scholar
  15. Ergenzinger, P., Görler, K., Ibbeken, H., Obenauf, P., and Rumohr, J.: 1978, ‘Calabrian Arc and Ionian Sea: Vertical Movements, Erosional and Sedimentary Balance’, in: Closs, H., Roeder, D., and Schmidt, K. (eds.), Alps, Apennines, Hellenides, Inter Union Comm. on Geodynamics, Stuttgart, 38, 359–373.Google Scholar
  16. Erickson, A. J. and Von Herzen, R. P.: 1978, ‘Down-Hole Temperature Measurements’, in: Hsü, K. J., Montadert, L., et al., (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Government Printing Off., Washington, 42, 857–871.Google Scholar
  17. Finetti, I.: 1976, ‘Mediterranean Ridge: A Young Submerged Chain Associated with the Hellenic Arc’, Bollettino Geofisica Teorica Applicata 69, 31–65.Google Scholar
  18. Finetti, I. and Morelli, C.: 1973, ‘Geophysical Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea’, Bollettino Geofisica Teorica Applicata 60, 263–344.Google Scholar
  19. Ghisetti, F. and Vezzani, L.: 1979, ‘The Geodynamic Evolution of the Crustal Structures of Calabria and Sicily’, Proceed. IGU. XV Plenary Meeting, Modena, 1–12.Google Scholar
  20. Görler, K.: 1978, ‘Critical Review of Postulate Nappe Structures in Southern Calabria’, in: Closs, H., Roeder, D., and Schmidt, K. (eds), Alps, Apennines, Hellenides, Inter Union Comm. on Geodynamics, Stuttgart, 38, 349–354.Google Scholar
  21. Görler, K. and Giese, P.: 1978, ‘Aspects of the Evolution of the Calabrian Arc’, in: Closs, H., Roeder, D., and Schmidt, K. (eds.), Aips, Apennines, Hellenides, Inter Union Comm. on Geodynamics, Stuttgart, 38, 374–388.Google Scholar
  22. Grandjacquet, C. and Mascle, G.: 1978, ‘The Structure of the Ionian Sea, Sicily, and Calabria-Lucania’, in: Nairn, A. E. M. et al., (eds.), The Ocean Basins and Margins 4B, 257–329.Google Scholar
  23. Hersey, J. B.: 1965, ‘Sedimentary Basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Submarine Geology and Geophysics’, Proceed. XVII Symp. Colston Res. Soc., Butterworths, London, 75–91.Google Scholar
  24. Hieke, W., Sigl, W., and Fabricius, F.: 1973, ‘Morphological and Structural Aspects of the Mediterranean Ridge SW of Peloponnesus (Ionian Sea)’, Bull. Geol. Soc. of Greece 10, 109–126.Google Scholar
  25. Hinz, K.: 1972, ‘Zum Diapirismus im westlichen Mittelmeer’, Geol. Jahrbuch 90, 389–396.Google Scholar
  26. Hinz, K.: 1974, ‘Results of Seismic Refraction and Seismic Reflection Measurements in the Ionian Sea’, Geol. Jahrbuch 92, 33–65.Google Scholar
  27. Karig, D. E.: 1977, ‘Growth Patterns on the Upper Trench Slope’, in: Talwani, M. and Pitman, W. C. III (eds.), Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches and Back Arc Basins, Am. Geoph. Union, Washington, 175–185.Google Scholar
  28. Karig, D. E. and Sharman, G. F.: 1975, ‘Subduction and Accretion in Trenches’, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 86, 377–389.Google Scholar
  29. Kenyon, N. H. and Belderson, R. H.: 1977, ‘Young Compressional structures of the Calabrian, Hellenic and Cyprus outer Ridges’, in: Structural history of the Mediterranean basins, Edit. Technip, Paris, 233–240.Google Scholar
  30. Laubscher, H. P. and Bernoulli, D.: 1977, ‘Mediterranean and Tethys’, in: Structural history of the Mediterranean basins, Edit. Technip, Paris, 129–132.Google Scholar
  31. Letouzey, J., Biju-Duval, B., Courrier, P., and Montadert, L.: 1974, ‘Nappes de Glissement Actuelles au Front de l'Arc Calabrais en Mer Ionienne (d'après la sismique réflexion)’, Deuxième Réunion annuelle Sciences de la Terre, Nancy, 2 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Morelli, C., Cornea, I., and Lazarescu, V.: 1975a, ‘A Seismotectonic Comparison between the Eastern Carpathians and Calabrian-Sicilian Arc Bends’, Bollettino Geofisica Teorica Applicata, 66, 169–178.Google Scholar
  33. Morelli, C., Gantar, C., and Pisani, M.: 1975b, ‘Bathymetry, Gravity (and Magnetism) in the Strait of Sicily and in the Ionian Sea’, Bollettino Geofisica Teorica Applicata 65, 39–58.Google Scholar
  34. Mulder, C. J.: 1973, ‘Tectonic Framework and Distribution of Miocene Evaporites in the Mediterranean’, in: Drooger, W. (ed.), Messinian events in the Mediterranean, Koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch, Amsterdam, 44–59.Google Scholar
  35. Mulder, C. J., Lehner, P., and Allen, D. C. K.: 1975, ‘Structural Evolution of the Neogene Salt Basins in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea’, Geol. en Mijnbouw 54, 208–221.Google Scholar
  36. Ninkovich, D. and Hays, J. D.: 1971, ‘Tectonic Setting of the Mediterranean Volcanos’, Acta First Int. Scient. Congr. Volcano of Thera, Athens, 111–135.Google Scholar
  37. Ogniben, L.: 1955, ‘Le Argille Scagliose del Crotonese’, Memorie Note Ist. Geol. Appl. Napoli 6, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Ogniben, L.: 1973, ‘Schema Geologico della Calabria in Base ai Dati Odierni’ Geologica Romana 12, 243–585.Google Scholar
  39. Quitzow, H. W.: 1935, ‘Der Deckenbau des kalabrischen Massivs und seiner Randgebiete’, Abh. Gesell. Wissen. Göttingen, Mat. Phys. Klasse 13, 63–179.Google Scholar
  40. Rabinowitz, P. D. and Ryan, W. B. F.: 1970, ‘Gravity Anomalies and Crustal Shortening in the Eastern Mediterranean’, Tectonophysics 10, 585–608.Google Scholar
  41. Ritsema, A. R.: 1969, ‘Seismic Data on the Western Mediterranean and Problem of Oceanization’, in: ‘Symposium on the problem of oceanization in the western Mediterranean’, Verk. Koninkl. Nederl. Geol. Mijnb. 26, 105–121.Google Scholar
  42. Rossi, S. and Borsetti, A. M.: 1977, ‘Dati Preliminari di Stratigrafia e di Sismica del Mare Ionio Settentrionale’, Memorie Soc. Geol. Italiana 13, 251–259.Google Scholar
  43. Ryan, W. B. F.: 1969, ‘The Stratigraphy of the Eastern Mediterranean’, Ph. D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Ryan, W. B. F. and Heezen, B. C.: 1965, ‘Ionian Sea Submarine Canyons and the 1908 Messina Turbidity Current’, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 76, 915–932.Google Scholar
  45. Ryan, W. B. F., Hsü, K. J. et al.: 1973, ‘Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project’, Government Printing Office, Washington, 13, 517–1447.Google Scholar
  46. Sancho, J., Letouzey, J., Biju-Duval, B., Courrier, P., Montadert, L., and Winnock, E.: 1973, ‘New Data on the Structure of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from Seismic Reflection’, Earth Planetary Sci. Letts. 18, 189–204.Google Scholar
  47. Scandone, P.: in press, Origin of the Tyrrhenian Sea and Calabrian Arc' Rendiconti Soc. Geol. Italiana.Google Scholar
  48. Scandone, P., Patacca, E., Radoicic, R., Ryan, W. B. F., Cita, M. B., Rawson, M., Miller, E., Chezar, H., Rossi, S., and McKenzie, J.: in press, ‘Mesozoic and Cenozoic Rocks from the Malta Escarpment (Central Mediterranean)-Results of a Dredging Campaign’, Am. Ass. Petr. Geol. Bull. Google Scholar
  49. Seely, D. R.: 1977, ‘The Significance of Landward Vergence and Oblique Structural Trends on Inner Trench Slopes’, in: Talwani, M. and Pitman, W. C. III (eds.), Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches and Back Arc Basins, Am. Geoph. Union, Washington, 187–198.Google Scholar
  50. Selli, R.: 1962, ‘I1 Paleogene nel Quadro della Geologia dell'Italia Centro-Meridionale’ Memorie Soc. Geol. Italiana 3, 737–789.Google Scholar
  51. Selli, R.: 1973, ‘An Outline of the Italian Messinian’, in: Drooger, W. (ed.), Messinian events in the Mediterranean, Koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, 150–171.Google Scholar
  52. Selli, R.: 1974, ‘Appunti Sulla Geologia del Mar Tirreno’, Rendiconti Seminario Fac. Sci. Univ. Cagliari, 327–349.Google Scholar
  53. Selli, R. and Fabbri, A.: 1971, ‘Tyrrhenian, a Pliocene Deep-Sea’, Rendiconti Accademia Lincei, Sci. Mat. Fis. Nat. 50, 104–116.Google Scholar
  54. Selli, R. and Rossi, S.: 1975, ‘The Main Geological Features of the Ionian Sea’, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit. 23, 115–116.Google Scholar
  55. Selli, R., Colantoni, P., Fabbri, A., Rossi, S., Borsetti, A. M., and Gallignani, P.: 1975, ‘Marine Geological Researches in the Messina Strait Area’, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit. 23, 275.Google Scholar
  56. Selli, R., Lucchini, F., Rossi, P. L., Savelli, C., and DelMonte, M.: 1979, ‘Geology and Petrochemistry of the Centraltyrrhenian Volcanos’, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit. 25/26, 61.Google Scholar
  57. Sigl, W., Hinz, K., and Garde, S.: 1973, ‘Hummocky and Rolling Landscape in the Ionian Sea—a Contribution to the Cobblestone Problem’, Meteor-Forschungs ergebnisse 14, 51–54.Google Scholar
  58. Talwani, M., Windisch, C. C., Stoffa, P. L., and Buhl, P.: 1977, ‘Multi-Channel Seismic Study in the Venezuelan Basin and the Curaçao Ridge’, in: Talwani, M. and Pitman, W. C. III (eds.), Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches and Back Arc Basins, Am. Geoph. Union, Washington, 83–98.Google Scholar
  59. Vogt, P. R. and Higgs, R. H.: 1969, ‘An Aeromagnetic Survey of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and its Interpretation’, Earth Planetary Sci. Letters 5, 439–448.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Rossi
    • 1
  • Renzo Sartori
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Geologia MarinaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations