Marine Geophysical Researches

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 187–203 | Cite as

Nankai Trough: A hot trench?

  • M. Yamano
  • S. Honda
  • S. Uyeda


Heat flow estimated from the gas hydrate layers on the landward slope of the Nankai Trough reveals that heat flow increases downslope toward the trench floor. This data plus six new heat flow values obtained by a conventional probe and two values available from DSDP drill holes give a fairly detailed heat flow distribution in the Nankai Trough area, when combined with the already existing data set. There appears to be a zonal pattern parallel to the trough axis, with a high heat flow zone on the floor of the trough that is quite anomalous for a subduction zone. It might be explained as a result of subduction of the hot portion of the Philippine Sea plate, i.e. the Shikoku Basin, and/or of more local effects such as heating due to intrusion of hot water from subducted sediments to shallow depth beneath the trough floor. Surface heat flow patterns landward of the trough were calculated for a simple thermal model of subduction. Perfect reproduction of the observed zonal pattern is difficult to achieve by the simple model, suggesting the necessity for further heat flow and other observations.


Subduction Heat Flow Subduction Zone Zonal Pattern Nankai Trough 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R. N.: 1980, ‘1980 Update of Heat Flow in the East and Southeast Asian Seas’, in Hayes, D. E. (ed.), The Tectonic and Geologic Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands, Amer. Geophys. Union, Geophys. Mono. Ser. 23, pp. 319–326.Google Scholar
  2. AndersonR. N. and SkilbeckJ. N.: 1981, ‘Oceanic Heat Flow’, in EmilianiC. (ed.), The Sea Vol. 7, Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 489–523.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. N., Langseth, M. G., Hayes, D. E., Watanabe, T., and Yasui, M.: 1978, ‘Heat Flow, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Gradient’, in Hayes, D. E. (ed.), Geophysical Atlas of the East and Southeast Asian Seas, Map and Chart Ser. Vol. MC-25, Geol. Soc. Amer.Google Scholar
  4. Aoki, Y., Tamano, T., and Kato, S.: 1983, ‘Detail Structure of the Nankai Trough from Migrated Seismic Sections’, in Watkins, J. S. and Drake, C. L. (eds.), Studies in Continental Margin Geology, Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Memoir 34, pp. 309–322.Google Scholar
  5. BlackwellD. D., BowenR. G., HallD. A., RiccioJ., and SteeleJ. L.: 1982, ‘Heat Flow, Arc Volcanism, and Subduction in Northern Oregon’, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8735–8754.Google Scholar
  6. BullardE. C.: 1954, ‘The Flow of Heat through Floor of the Atlantic Ocean’, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 222, 408–429.Google Scholar
  7. BurchT. K. and LangsethM. G.: 1981, ‘Heat Flow Determination in Three DSDP Holes near the Japan Trench’, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9411–9419.Google Scholar
  8. HermanB. M., LangsethM. G., and HobartM. A.: 1977, ‘Heat Flow in the Oceanic Crust Bounding West Africa’, Tectonophysics 41, 61–78.Google Scholar
  9. Honda, S.: 1984, ‘Thermal Structure beneath Tohoku, Northeastern Japan — A Case Study for Understanding the Detailed Thermal Structure of the Subduction Zones-’, submitted to Tectonophysics.Google Scholar
  10. Kagami, H., Karig, D. E., Akiba, F., Bray, C. J., Cadet, J. P., Charvet, J., Coulbourn, W., Fujioka, K., Kinoshita, H., Lagoe, M., Lang, T. H., Leggett, J. K., Lombari, G. A., Lundberg, N., Machihara, T., Matsumoto, R., Mukhopadhyay, P., Niitsuma, N., Smith, A. J., Stein, C. L., and Taira, A.: 1982, ‘Results of Deep Sea Drilling in the Nankai Trough and the Japan Trench’, Programme and Abstracts, Seismol. Soc. Japan 1982, No. 2, 66 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  11. KagamiH., KarigD. E., AkibaF., BrayC. J., CadetJ. P., CharvetJ., LombariG. A., LundbergN., MachiharaT., MatsumotoR., MukhopadhyayP., NiitsumaN., SmithA. J., SteinC. L., and TairaA.: 1983, ‘In the Orient Leg 87 Drills off Honshu & SW Japan’, Geotimes 28 (1), 15–18.Google Scholar
  12. KleinG. DeV. and KobayashiK.: 1980, ‘Geological Summary of the North Philippine Sea, Based on Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 58 Results’, in Initial Reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project 58, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., pp. 951–961.Google Scholar
  13. KleinG. deV., KobayashiK., ChamleyH., CurtisD. M., DickH. J. B., EcholsD. J., FountainD. M., KinoshitaH., MarshN. G., MizunoA., NisterenkoG. V., OkadaH., SloanJ. R., WaplesD. M., and WhiteS. M.: 1978, ‘Off-ridge Volcanism and Seafloor Spreading in the Shikoku Basin’, Nature 273, 746–748.Google Scholar
  14. KleinG. deV., KobayashiK., ChamleyH., CurtisD. M., DickH. J. B., EcholsD. J., FountainD. M., KinoshitaH., MarshN. G., MizunoA., NisterenkoG. V., OkadaH., SloanJ. R., WaplesD. M., and WhiteS. M.: 1980, Initial Reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project 58, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. KobayashiK. and NakadaM.: 1978, ‘Magnetic Anomalies and Tectonic Evolution of the Shikoku Inter-arc Basin’, J. Phys. Earth 26 Suppl., S391-S402.Google Scholar
  16. KonoY. and YoshiiT.: 1975, ‘Numerical Experiments on the Thickening Plate Model’, J. Phys. Earth 23, 63–75.Google Scholar
  17. KroganB. J., BodvarssonG., and MesecarR. S.: 1971, ‘Heat Flow through the Floor of the Cascadia Basin’, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4758–4774.Google Scholar
  18. LaBrecqueJ. L., KentD. V., and CandeS.C.: 1977, ‘Revised Magnetic Polarity Time Scale for Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Time’, Geology 5, 330–335.Google Scholar
  19. LangsethM. G. and HermanB. M.: 1981, ‘Heat Transfer in the Oceanic Crust of the Brazil Basin’, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10805–10819.Google Scholar
  20. LangsethM. G., HobartM. A., and HoraiK.: 1980, ‘Heat Flow in the Bering Sea’, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 3740–3750.Google Scholar
  21. ListerC. R. B.: 1977, ‘Estimates for Heat Flow and Deep Rock Properties Based on Boundary Layer Model’, Tectonophysics 41, 157–171.Google Scholar
  22. MooreJ. C. and KarigD. E.: 1976, ‘Sedimentology, Structural Geology, and Tectonics of the Shikoku Subduction Zone, Southwestern Japan’, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 87, 1259–1268.Google Scholar
  23. NasuN., TomodaY., KobayashiK., KagamiH., UyedaS., NagumoS., KushiroI., OzimaM., NakazawaK., TakayanagiY., OkadaH., MurauchiS., ChujoJ., and IshiiY.: 1977, ‘Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data across the Shikoku Basin and the Daito Ridges, 1976, part 1’, IPOD-Japan Basic Data Series No. 1, 17 pp., Ocean Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  24. NasuN., TomodaY., KobayashiK., KagamiH., UyedaS., NagumoS., NakamuraK., KushiroI., OzimaM., NakazawaK., TakayanagiY., OkadaH., MurauchiS., KinoshitaH., IshiwadaY., TamanoT., TobaT., and AokiY.: 1982, ‘Multi-channel Seismic Reflection Data across the Nankai Trough’, IPOD-Japan Basic Data Series No. 4, 34 pp., Ocean Research Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  25. ParkerR. L. and OldenburgD. W.: 1973, ‘Thermal Model of Ocean Ridges’, Nature Phys. Sci. 65, 137–139.Google Scholar
  26. ParsonsB. and SclaterJ. G.: 1977, ‘An Analysis of the Variation of Ocean Floor Bathymetry and Heat Flow with Age’, J. Geophy. Res. 82, 803–827.Google Scholar
  27. RiddihoughR. P.: 1978, ‘The Juan de Fuca Plate’, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 59, 836–842.Google Scholar
  28. SclaterJ. G., JaupartC., and GalsonD.: 1980, ‘The Heat Flow through Oceanic and Continental Crust and the Heat Loss of the Earth’, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 18, 269–311.Google Scholar
  29. SenoT.: 1977, ‘The Instantaneous Rotation Vector of the Philippine Sea Plate Relative to the Eurasian Plate’, Tectonophysics 42, 209–226.Google Scholar
  30. ShihT. C.: 1980, ‘Magnetic Lineations in the Shikoku Basin’, in Initial Reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project 58, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 783–788.Google Scholar
  31. ShionoK., SacksI. S., and LindeA. T.: 1980, ‘Preliminary Velocity Structure of Japanese Islands and Philippine Sea from Surface Wave Dispersion’, Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 79, 498–505.Google Scholar
  32. Sugi, N. and Uyeda, S.: 1984, ‘Subduction of Young Oceanic Plates without Deep Focus Earthquake’, Bull. Soc. Géol. France (in press).Google Scholar
  33. TatsumiY.: 1982, ‘Origin of High-magnesian Andesites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, Southwest Japan, II. Melting Phase Relations at High Pressures’, Earth and Planet. Sci. Letters 60, 305–317.Google Scholar
  34. vonHerzenR. and MaxwellA. E.: 1959, ‘The Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Deep-sea Sediments by a Needle-probe Method’, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1557–1563.Google Scholar
  35. WatanabeT., EppD., UyedaS., LangsethM., and YasuiM.: 1970, ‘Heat Flow in the Philippine Sea’, Tectonophysics 10, 205–224.Google Scholar
  36. WatanabeT., LangsethM. G., and AndersonR. N.: 1977, ‘Heat Flow in Back-arc Basins of the Western Pacific’, in TalwaniM. and PitmanIIIW. C. (eds.), Island Arcs, Deep Sea Trenches, and Back-arc Basins, Maurice Ewing Ser., Vol. 1, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 137–167.Google Scholar
  37. YamanoM., UyedaS., AokiY., and ShipleyT. H.: 1982, ‘Estimates of Heat Flow Derived from Gas Hydrates’, Geology 10, 339–343.Google Scholar
  38. YoshiiT.: 1979, ‘Compilation of Geophysical Data around the Japanese Islands (I)’, Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo 54, 75–117, (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  39. YoshiiT. and KobayashiK.: 1981, ‘Geophysics of Subduction Zones’, Kagaku 51, 472–478 (in Japanese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Yamano
    • 1
  • S. Honda
    • 1
  • S. Uyeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Earthquake Research InstituteUniv. of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations