Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 2, pp 143–166 | Cite as

Experimental investigations of the role of H2O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism

  • T. W. Sisson
  • T. L. Grove
Article

Abstract

Phase relations of natural aphyric high-alumina basalts and their intrusive equivalents were determined through rock-melting experiments at 2 kb, H2O-saturated with fO2 buffered at NNO. Experimental liquids are low-MgO high-alumina basalt or basaltic andesite, and most are saturated with olivine, calcic plagioclase, and either high-calcium pyroxene or hornblende (±magnetite). Cr-spinel or magnetite appear near the liquidus of wet high-alumina basalts because H2O lowers the appearance temperature of crystalline silicates but has a lesser effect on spinel. As a consequence, experimental liquids follow calcalkaline differentiation trends. Hornblende stability is sensitive to the Na2O content of the bulk composition as well as to H2O content, with the result that hornblende can form as a near liquidus mineral in wet sodic basalts, but does not appear until liquids reach andesitic compositions in moderate Na2O basalts. Therefore, the absence of hornblende in basalts with low-to-moderate Na2O contents is not evidence that those basalts are nearly dry. Very calcic plagioclase (>An90) forms from basaltic melts with high H2O contents but cannot form from dry melts with normal are Na2O and CaO abundances. The presence of anorthite-rich plagioclase in high-alumina basalts indicates high magmatic H2O contents. In sum, moderate pressure H2O-saturated phase relations show that magmatic H2O leads to the early crystallization of spinel, produces calcic plagioclase, and reduces the total proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thereby promoting the development of the calc-alkaline differentiation trend.

Keywords

Olivine Subduction Zone Basaltic Andesite Na2O Content Experimental Liquid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albarede F, Provost A (1977) Petrological and geochemical massblance equations: an algorithm for least-square fitting and general error analysis. Computer Geosci 3:309–328Google Scholar
  2. Albee AL, Ray L (1970) Correction factors for electron microprobe microanalysis of silicates, oxides, carbonates, phosphates and sulfates. Anal Chem 42:1408–1414Google Scholar
  3. Allen JC, Boettcher AL (1983) The stability of amphibole in andesite and basalt at high pressure. Am Min 68:307–314Google Scholar
  4. Allen JC, Boettcher AL, Marland G (1975) Amphiboles in andesite and basalt: I stability as a function of P-T-fO2. Am Min 60:1069–1085Google Scholar
  5. Anderson AT (1974) Chlorine, sulfur, and water in magmas and oceans. Geol Soc Am Bull 85:1485–1492Google Scholar
  6. Anderson AT (1982) Parental basalts in subduction zones: implications for continental evolution. J Geophys Res 87:7047–7060Google Scholar
  7. Arculus RJ, Wills KJ (1980) The petrology of igneous blocks and inclusions from the Lesser Antilles island arc. J Petrol 21:143–168Google Scholar
  8. Arculus RJ, Delong SE, Kay RW, Brooks C, Sun S-S (1977) The alkalic rock suite of Bogoslof Island, eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska. J Geol 85:177–186Google Scholar
  9. Baker DR, Eggler DH (1983) Fractionation paths of Atka (Aleutians) high-alumina basalts: constraints from phase relations. J Volc Geotherm Res 18:387–404Google Scholar
  10. Baker DR, Eggler DH (1987) Compositions of anhydrous and hydrous melts coexisting with plagioclase, augite, and olivine or low-Ca pyroxene from 1 atm to 8 kbar: application to the Aleutian volcanic center of Atka. Am Mineral 72:12–28Google Scholar
  11. Bartels KS, Kinzler RJ, Grove TL (1991) High pressure phase relations of primitive high-alumina basalt from Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. Contrib Miner Petrol 108:253–270Google Scholar
  12. Beard JS, Borgia A (1989) Temporal variation of mineralogy and petrology in cognate enclaves at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica. Contrib Mineral Petrol 103:110–122Google Scholar
  13. Bence AE, Albee AL (1968) Empirical correction factors for the electron microanalysis of silicates and oxides. J Goel 76:382–403Google Scholar
  14. Brophy JC (1986) The Cold Bay volcanic center, Aleutian volcanic arc I. Implications for the origin of hi-alumina arc basalt. Contrib Mineral Petrol 93:368–380Google Scholar
  15. Brown GM, Holland JG, Sigurdsson H, Tomblin JF, Arculus RJ (1977) Geochemistry of the Lesser Antilles volcanic island arc. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41:785–801Google Scholar
  16. Burnham CW (1979) The importance of volatile constituents. In: Yoder HS (ed) The evolution of the igneous rocks. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton NJ:439–482Google Scholar
  17. Burnham CW, Holloway JR, Davis NF (1969) Thermodynamic properties of water to 1000°C and 10 000 bars. Geol Soc Am, Spec Pap 132:1–96Google Scholar
  18. Burns RG, Dyar MD (1983) Spectral chemistry of green glassbearing 15426 regolith. Proc Lunar and Planet Sci Conf 14, J Geophys Res 88:B221-B228Google Scholar
  19. Byers FM (1959) Geology of Umnak and Bogoslof Islands Aleutian Islands, Alaska, US Geol Surv Bull 1028-L:267–369Google Scholar
  20. Byers FM (1961) Petrology of three volcanic suites, Umnak and Bogoslof Islands, Aleutian Islands. Geol Soc Am Bull 79:93–128Google Scholar
  21. Carr MJ, Rose WI (1987) CENTAM—a data base of Central American volcanic rocks. J Volc Geotherm Res 33:239–240Google Scholar
  22. Cawthorn RG (1976) Melting relations in part of the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-H2O under 5kb pressure. J Petrol 17:44–72Google Scholar
  23. Cawthorn RG, O'Hara MJ (1976) Amphibole fractionation in calcalkaline magma series. Am J Sci 276:309–329Google Scholar
  24. Cawthorn RG, Curran EB, Arculus RJ (1973) A petrogenetic model for the origin of the calc-alkaline suite of Grenada, Lesser Antilles. J Petrol 14:327–337Google Scholar
  25. Conrad WK, Kay RW (1984) Ultramafic and mafic inclusions from Adak island: crystallization history and implications for the nature of primary magmas and crustal evolution in the Aleutian arc. J Petrol 25:88–125Google Scholar
  26. Eggler DH (1972) Water-saturated and undersaturated melting relations in a Paricutin andesite and an estimate of water content in the natural magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 34:261–271Google Scholar
  27. Eggler DH, Burnham CW (1973) Crystallization and fractionation trends in the system andesite-H2O-CO2-O2 at pressures to 10 kb. Geol Soc Am Bull 84:2517–2532Google Scholar
  28. Ford CE, Biggar GM, Humphries DJ, Wilson G, Dixon D, O'Hara MJ (1972) Role of water in the evolution of the lunar crust; an experimental study of sample 14310; an indication of lunar calc-alkaline volcanism. Proc Third Lunar Sci Conf 1:207–229Google Scholar
  29. Gill JB (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Green TH, Pearson NJ (1985) Experimental determination of REE partition coefficients between amphibole and basaltic to andesitic liquids at high pressure. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:1465–1468Google Scholar
  31. Grove TL (1981) Use of FePt alloys to eliminate the iron loss problem in 1 atmosphere gas mixing experiments: theoretical and practical considerations. Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:298–304Google Scholar
  32. Grove TL, Baker MB (1984) Phase equilibrium controls on the tholeiitic versus calc-alkaline differentiation trends. J Geophys Res 89:3253–3274Google Scholar
  33. Grove TL, Bryan WB (1983) Fractionation of pyroxene-phyric MORB at low pressure: an experimental study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:293–309Google Scholar
  34. Grove TL, Juster TC (1989) Experimental investigations of low-Ca pyroxene stability and olivine-pyroxene-liquid equilibria at 1-atm in natural basaltic and andesitic liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 103:287–305Google Scholar
  35. Grove TL, Kinzler RJ (1986) Petrogenesis of andesites. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 14:417–454Google Scholar
  36. Grove TL, Gerlach DC, Sando TW (1982) Origin of calc-alkaline series lavas at Medicine Lake volcano by fractionation, assimilation and mixing. Contrib Mineral Petrol 80:160–182Google Scholar
  37. Grove TL, Kinzler RJ, Bryan WB (1990) Natural and experimental phase relations of lavas from Seroki volcano. Proc ODP, Sci Results, 106/109, College Station TX, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  38. Grove TL, Kinzler RJ, Bryan WB (1992) Fractionation of midocean ridge basalt. In: Blackman D and Phipps-Morgan J, Proceedings of the 1st RIDGE institute: (in press)Google Scholar
  39. Gust DA, Perfit MR (1987) Phase relations of a high-Mg basalt from the Aleutian Island Arc: implications for primary island arc basalts and high-Al basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:7–18Google Scholar
  40. Hamilton DL, Burnham CW, Osborn EF (1964) The solubility of water and effects of oxygen fugacity and water content on crystallization in mafic magmas. J Petrol 5:21–39Google Scholar
  41. Hansen M (1958) Constitution of binary alloys. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Hawthorne FC (1981) Crystal chemistry of the amphiboles. In: Veblen DR (ed) Amphiboles and other hydrous pyriboles-mineralogy. Rev Mineralogy, 9A, Mineral Soc AmGoogle Scholar
  43. Heald EF, Naughton JJ, Barnes IL (1963) The chemistry of volcanic gases. J Geophys Res 68:545–557Google Scholar
  44. Helz RT (1973) Phase relations of basalts in their melting range at pH2O=5kb as a function of oxygen fugacity. I. Mafic phases. J Petrol 14:249–302Google Scholar
  45. Helz RT (1976) Phase relations of basalts in their melting ranges at pH2O=5kb. II. Melt compositions. J Petrol 17:139–193Google Scholar
  46. Helz RT (1981) Phase relations and compositions of amphiboles produced in studies of the melting behavior of rocks. In: Veblen DR, Ribbe PH (eds) Amphiboles: petrology and experimental phase relations. Min Soc Am-Reviews in Mineralogy 9B:279–353Google Scholar
  47. Helz RT (1987) Differentiation behavior of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: an overview of past and current work. In: Mysen BO (ed) Magmatic processes: physicochemical principles. Spec Pub Geochem Soc 1:241–258Google Scholar
  48. Hill R, Roeder P (1974) The crystallization of spinel from basaltic liquid as a function of oxygen fugacity. J Geol 82:709–729Google Scholar
  49. Holloway JR, Burnham CW (1972) Melting relations of basalt with equilibrium water pressure less than total pressure. J Petrol 13:1–29Google Scholar
  50. Irvine TN, Baragar WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Can J Earth Sci 8:523–548Google Scholar
  51. Johannes W (1978) Melting of plagioclase in the system Ab-An-H2O and Qz-Ab-An-H2O at PH2O=5 kbar, an equilibrium problem. Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:295–303Google Scholar
  52. Johnson MC, Rutherford ML (1989) Experimentally determined conditions in the Fish Canyon tuff, Colorado, magma chamber. J Petrol 30:711–737Google Scholar
  53. Johnston AD (1986) Anhydrous P-T phase relations of near-primary high-alumina basalt from the South Sandwich Islands. Contrib Mineral Petrol 92:368–382Google Scholar
  54. Juster TC, Grove TL, Perfit MR (1989) Experimental constraints on the generation of Fe-Ti basalts, andesites, and rhyodacites at the Galapagos Spreading Center, 85°W and 95°W. J Geophys Res 94:9251–9274Google Scholar
  55. Katsura T, Nagashima S (1974) Solubility of sulfur in some magmas at 1 atmosphere. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38:517–531Google Scholar
  56. Kay SM, Kay RW (1985) Aleutian tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series; I. The mafic phenocrysts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 90:276–290Google Scholar
  57. Kennedy GC (1955) Some aspects of the role of water in rock melts. In: Crust of the Earth—a symposium. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper 62, pp 489–503Google Scholar
  58. Kilinic A, Carmichael ISE, Rivers ML, Sack RO (1983) The ferric-ferrous ration of natural silicate liquids equilibrated in air. Contrib Mineral Petrol 83:136–140Google Scholar
  59. Kinzler RJ, Grove TL (1992) Primary magmas of mid-ocean ridge basalts 1. Experiments and methods. J Geophys Res 97:6885–6906Google Scholar
  60. Kress VC, Carmichael ISE (1988) Stoichiometry of the iron oxidation reaction in silicate melts. Am Min 73:1267–1274Google Scholar
  61. Kuno H (1950) Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent areas, Japan. Geol Soc Am Bull 61:957–1020Google Scholar
  62. Kushiro I (1969) The system forsterite-diopside-silica with and without water at high, pressures. Am J Sci 267A:269–294Google Scholar
  63. Labotka TC (1991) Chemical and physical properties of fluids. In: Kerrick DM (ed) Contact metamorphism. Min Soc Am-Reviews in Mineralogy 26:43–104Google Scholar
  64. Marsh BD (1976) Some Aleutian andesites: their nature and source. J Geol 84:27–45Google Scholar
  65. Marsh BD (1982) The Aleutians. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites. Wiley, New York, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  66. Meen JK (1987) Formation of shoshonites from calc-alkaline basalt magmas: geochemical and experimental constraints from the type locality. Contrib Mineral Petrol 97:333–351Google Scholar
  67. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. Am J Sci 274:321–355Google Scholar
  68. Myers JD, Marsh BD, Sinha AK (1986) Geochemical and strontium isotopic characteristics of parental Aleutian arc magmas: evidence from the basaltic lavas of Atka. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:1–11Google Scholar
  69. Naney MT (1983) Phase equilibria of rock-forming ferromagnesian silicates in granitic systems. Am J Sci 283:993–1033Google Scholar
  70. Nicholls IA, Harris KL (1980) Experimental rare earth element partition coefficients for garnet, clinopyroxene, and amphibole coexisting with andesitic and basaltic liquids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:287–308Google Scholar
  71. Nye CJ, Reid MR (1986) Geochemistry of primary and least fractionated lavas from Okmok volcano, central Aleutians: implications for arc magma genesis. J Geophys Res 91:271–287Google Scholar
  72. Osborn EF (1959) Role of oxygen pressure in the crystallization and differentiation of basaltic magma. Am J Sci 257:609–647Google Scholar
  73. Osborn EF (1963) Some experimental investigations bearing on the origin of igneous magmas of the earth's crust. Estud Geol 19:1–7Google Scholar
  74. Osborn EF (1969) Experimental aspects of calc-alkaline differentiation. In: McBirney AR (ed) Proc Andesite Conf, Oregon Dept of Geol and Mineral Industries, Bull 65:33–42Google Scholar
  75. Peterson PS, Rose WI (1985) Explosive eruptions of the Ayarza calderas, southeastern Guatemala. J Volc Geotherm Res 25:289–307Google Scholar
  76. Presnall DC (1966) The join forsterite-diopside-iron oxide and its bearing on the crystallization of basaltic and ultramafic magmas. Am J Sci 264:753–809Google Scholar
  77. Presnall DC, Dixon SA, Dixon JR, O'Donnell TH, Brenner NL, Schrock RL, Dyeus DW (1978) Liquidus phase relations on the join diopside-forsterite-anorthite from 1 atm to 20 kbar: their bearing on the generation and crystallization of basaltic magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:203–220Google Scholar
  78. Roeder PL (1974) Activity of iron and olivine solubility in basaltic liquids. Earth Planet Sci Lett 23:397–410Google Scholar
  79. Roeder PL, Osborn EF (1966) Experimental data for the system MgO-FeO-Fe2O3-CaAl2Si2O8-SiO2 and their petrological implications. Am J Sci 264:428–480Google Scholar
  80. Rose WI (1987) Santa Maria, Guatemala: bimodal soda-rich calcalkalic stratovolcano. J Volc Geotherm Res 33:109–129Google Scholar
  81. Rutherford MJ, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Davis A (1985) The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens 1. Melt composition and experimental phase equilibria. J Geophys Res 90:2929–2947Google Scholar
  82. Sekine T, Wyllie PJ (1983) Phase relations in the join grossularitepyrope-7.5 percent H2O at 30 Kb. Am J Sci 283:435–453Google Scholar
  83. Shaw HR, Wones DR (1964) Fugacity coefficients for hydrogen gas between 0° and 1000°C for pressures to 3000 atm. Am J Sci 262:918–929Google Scholar
  84. Sisson TW, Grove TL (1993) Temperatures and H2O contents of low-MgO high-alumina basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:167–184Google Scholar
  85. Spulber SD, Rutherford MJ (1983) The origin of rhyolite and plagiogranite in oceanic crust: an experimental study. J Petrol 24:1–25Google Scholar
  86. Stern CR, Wyllie PJ (1975) Effect of iron absorption by noble-metal capsules on phase boundaries in rock-melting experiments at 30 kilobars. Am Min 60:681–689Google Scholar
  87. Stolper E, Holloway JR (1988) Experimental determination of the solubility of carbon dioxide in molten basalt at low pressure. Earth Planet Sci Lett 87:397–408Google Scholar
  88. Tormey DR, Grove TL, Bryan WB (1987) Experimental petrology of normal MORB near the Kane Fracture Zone: 22°–25°N, mid-Atlantic ridge. Contrib Mineral Petrol 96:121–139Google Scholar
  89. Wager LR, Deer WA (1939) The petrology of the Skaergaard intrusion, Kangerlassuaq, East Greenland, Medd Groenl 105(4): 1–352Google Scholar
  90. Wagner TP, Grove TL, Donnelly-Nolan JM (1991) Water saturated melting of Lake high-alumina basalts from Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California (abstract). Trans Am Geophys Union 72:548Google Scholar
  91. Walker D, Shibata T, DeLong SE (1979) Abyssal tholeiite from Oceanographer Fracture Zone, II: phase equilibria and mixing. Contrib Mineral Petrol 70:111–125Google Scholar
  92. Yoder HS Jr (1965) Diopside-anorthite-water at five and ten kilobars and its bearing on explosive volcanism. Yearb Carnegie Inst Wash 64:82–89Google Scholar
  93. Yoder HS Jr (1969a) Calcalkalic andesites: Experimental evidence bearing on the origin of their assumed characteristics. In: McBirney AR (ed) Proc Andesite Conf, Oregon Dept of Geol and Mineral Industries. Bull 65:77–89Google Scholar
  94. Yoder HS Jr (1969b) The join diopside-pyrope-H2O at 10 Kb: its bearing on the melting of peridotite, the ACF metamorphic facies, and the gedrite-hornblende miscibility gap. Yearb Carnegie Inst Wash 69:176–181Google Scholar
  95. Yoder HS Jr, Tilley CE (1962) Origin of basalt magmas: an experimental study of natural and synthetic rock systems. J Petrol 3:342–532Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. W. Sisson
    • 1
  • T. L. Grove
    • 1
  1. 1.Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations