Advertisement

Human Genetics

, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 239–243 | Cite as

DNA finger printing by oligonucleotide probes specific for simple repeats

  • S. Ali
  • C. R. Müller
  • J. T. Epplen
Original Investigations

Summary

Interspersed simple repetitive DNA is a convenient genetic marker for analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) because of the numbers and the frequencies of its alleles. Oligonucleotide probes specific for variations of the GA C T A simple repeats have been designed and hybridized to a panel of human DNAs digested with various restriction enzymes. Numerous RFLPs were demonstrated in AluI and MboI digested DNA with “pure” GATA oligonucleotides as probes. The optimal length of the probe for RFLP analysis was 20 bases taking into account fragment lengths (1.5-7 kilobases = kb), signal to background ratio, and number of clearly evaluable RFLPs. By using different restriction enzymes individual-specific hybridization patterns (“DNA fingerprints”) can be established. Hypervariable simple repeat fragments are stably inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Advantages of this method are discussed.

Keywords

Restriction Enzyme Fragment Length Length Polymorphism Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Restriction Fragment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnemann, J, Jakubiczka S, Schmidtke J, Schäfer R, Epplen JT (1986) Clustered GATA repeats (Bkm sequences) on the human Y chromosome. Hum Genet 73:301–303Google Scholar
  2. Bell GI, Selby MJ, Rutter WJ (1982) The highly polymorphic region near the human insulin gene is composed of simple tandemly repeating sequences. Nature 295:31–35Google Scholar
  3. Botstein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW (1980) Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet 32-314-331Google Scholar
  4. Cooper DN, Smith BA, Cooke HJ, Niemann S, Schmidtke J (1985) An estimate of unique DNA sequence heterozygosity in the human genome. Hum Genet 69:201–205Google Scholar
  5. Epplen JT, Ohno S (1986) On DNA, RNA and sex determination. In: Lau Y-Fc (ed) Selected topics in molecular endocrinology. Oxford University Press, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Epplen JT, Sutou S, McCarrey JR, Ohno S (1982a) Is sex specifically arranged repetitive DNA involved in primary sex determination in vertebrates? In: Bonnetamir B (ed) Human genetics, part A: The unfolding genome. Liss, New York, pp 317–326Google Scholar
  7. Epplen JT, McCarrey JR, Sutou S, Ohno S (1982b) Base sequence of a cloned snake W-chromosome DNA fragment and identification of a male specific putative mRNA in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3798–3802Google Scholar
  8. Itakura K, Rossi JJ, Wallace RB (1984) Synthesis and use of synthetic oligonucleotides. Annu Rev Biochem 53:323–356Google Scholar
  9. Jeffreys AJ (1979) DNA sequence variants in the Gγ-,Aγ-,δ- and β globulin genes of man. Cell 18:1–10Google Scholar
  10. Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V, Thein SL (1985a) Hypervariable “minisatellite” regions in human DNA. Nature 314:67–73Google Scholar
  11. Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V, Thein SL (1985b) Individual-specific “fingerprints” of human DNA. Nature 316:76–79Google Scholar
  12. Jeffreys AJ, Brookfield JFY, Semeonoff R (1985c) Positive identification of an immigration test-case using human DNA fingerprints. Nature 317:818–819Google Scholar
  13. Jones KW, Singh L (1981) Conserved repeated DNA sequences in vertebrate sex chromosomes. Hum Genet 58:46–53Google Scholar
  14. Kunkel LM, Smith KD, Boyer SH, Borgaonkar DS, Wachtel SS, Miller OJ, Breg WR, Jones HW Jr, Rary JM (1977) Analysis of human Y chromosome-specific reiterated DNA in chromosome variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:1245–1249Google Scholar
  15. Proudfoot NJ, Gil A, Maniatis T (1982) The structure of the human Zeta-globin gene and a closely linked, nearly identical pseudogene. Cell 31:553–563Google Scholar
  16. Schäfer R, Ali S, Epplen JT (1986a) The organization of the evolutionarily conserved GATA/GACA repeats in the mouse genome. Chromosoma 93:502–510Google Scholar
  17. Schäfer R, Böltz E, Becker A, Bartels F, Epplen JT (1986b) The expression of the evolutionarily conserved GATA/GACA repeats in mouse tissue. Chromosoma 93:496–501Google Scholar
  18. Schmidtke J, Epplen JT (1980) Sequence organization of animal nuclear DNA. Hum Genet 55:1–18Google Scholar
  19. Singh L, Purdom IF, Jones KW (1981) Conserved sex-chromosome-associated nucleotide sequences in eukaryotes. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 45:805–813Google Scholar
  20. Tsao SGS, Brunk CF, Perlman RE (1983) Hybridization of nucleic acids directly in agarose gels. Anal Biochem 131:365–372Google Scholar
  21. Wainscoat JS, Hill AVS, Boyce AL, Flint J, Hernandez M, Thein SL, Old JM, Lynch JR, Falusi AG, Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB (1986) Evolutionary relationships of human populations from an analysis of nuclear DNA polymorphisms. Nature 319:491–493Google Scholar
  22. White R (1985) DNA sequence polymorphisms revitalize linkage approaches in human genetics. Trends Genet 1:177–181Google Scholar
  23. Williamson R, Darling SM (1984) Methods to analyse the human genome. J Pathol 141:193–200Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Ali
    • 1
  • C. R. Müller
    • 2
  • J. T. Epplen
    • 1
  1. 1.Junior Research UnitMax-Planck-Institut für ImmunbiologieFreiburgFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Institut für Humangenetik der UniversitätWürzburgFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations