Advertisement

Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 241, Issue 5–6, pp 595–601 | Cite as

Isolation of signaling mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

  • Jonathan Lightner
  • Gregory Pearce
  • Clarence A. Ryan
  • John Browse
Original Articles

Abstract

As a first step towards developing a genetic system for investigating signaling processes in plants, we have developed a screen for signaling mutants deficient in a wound response. We have isolated two mutants of tomato that lack detectable production of proteinase inhibitors induced systemically in leaves by wounding. The mutants are deficient in the induction of both proteinase Inhibitor I and proteinase Inhibitor II but can be induced to respond at near wild-type levels by methyl jasmonate, a known elicitor of inhibitor production in tomato. While completely deficient in systemic production of proteinase inhibitors, both mutants produce some proteinase inhibitor in wounded leaves. This evidence suggests the existence of two signaling pathways, one local and one systemic, that regulate the induction of proteinase inhibitor snythesis in response to wounding.

Key words

Jasmonate Proteinase inhibitors Signaling pathways Systemin Wound response 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baydoun EA-H, Fry SC (1985) The immobility of pectic substances in injured tomato leaves and its bearing on the identity of the wound hormone. Planta 165:269–276Google Scholar
  2. Bishop PD, Pearce G, Bryant JE, Ryan CA (1984) Isolation and characterization of the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor from tomato leaves. J Biol Chem 259:13172–13177Google Scholar
  3. Blake MS, Johnston KH, Russel-Jones GJ, Gotschlich EC (1984) A rapid, sensitive method for detection of alkaline phosphataseconjugated anti-antibody on western blots. Anal Biochem 136:175–179Google Scholar
  4. Conconi A, Ryan CA (1992) DnaseI and micrococcal nuclease analysis of the tomato proteinase inhibitor I gene in chromatin. J Biol Chem 268:430–435Google Scholar
  5. Farmer EE, Ryan CA (1990) Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:7713–7716Google Scholar
  6. Farmer EE, Ryan CA (1992) Octadecanoid precursors of jasmonic acid activate synthesis of wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors. Plant Cell 4:129–134Google Scholar
  7. Graham JS, Pearce G, Merryweather J, Titani K, Ericsson LH, Ryan CA (1985) Wound-induced proteinase inhibitors from tomato leaves. J Biol Chem 260:6561–6564Google Scholar
  8. Green TR, Ryan CA (1972) Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in plant leaves: a possible defense mechanism against insects. Science 175:776–777Google Scholar
  9. Green TR, Ryan CA (1973) Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in tomato leaves. Plant Physiol 51:19–21Google Scholar
  10. Gustafson G, Ryan CA (1976) Specificity of protein turnover in tomato leaves. J Biol Chem 251:7004–7010Google Scholar
  11. Hadwiger LA, Loschke DC (1981) Molecular interactions in hostparasite interactions: hexosamine polymers (chitosan) as regulator compounds in race-specific and other reactions. Phytochemistry 71:756–762Google Scholar
  12. Kernan A, Thornburg RW (1989) Auxin levels regulate the expression of a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene fusion in vitro and in vivo. Plant Physiol 91:73–78Google Scholar
  13. McGurl B, Pearce G, Orozco-Cardenas M, Ryan CA (1992) Structure, expression, and antisense inhibition of the systemin precursor gene. Science 255:1570–1573Google Scholar
  14. Meyerowitz E (1989) Arabidopsis: A useful weed. Cell 56:263–269Google Scholar
  15. Okada K, Shimura Y (1992) Aspects of recent developments in mutational studies of plant signaling pathways. Cell 70:369–372Google Scholar
  16. Palm CJ, Costa MA, An G, Ryan CA (1990) Wound-inducible nuclear protein binds fragments that regulate a proteinase inhibitor II gene from potato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:603–607Google Scholar
  17. Pearce G, Ryan CA, Liljegren D (1988) Proteinase inhibitors I and II in fruit of wild tomato species: transient components of a mechanism for defense and seed dispersal. Planta 175:527–531Google Scholar
  18. Pearce G, Strydom D, Johnson S, Ryan CA (1991) A polypeptide from tomato leaves induces wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor proteins. Science 253:895–898Google Scholar
  19. Pena-Cortes H, Sanchez-Serrano J, Rocha-Sosa M, Willmitzer L (1989) Abscisic acid is involved in the wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor 11 gene in potato and tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:9851–9855Google Scholar
  20. Rick CM, Yoder JI (1988) Classical and molecular genetics of tomato: highlights and perspectives. Annu Rev Genet 22:281–300Google Scholar
  21. Ryan CA (1967) The quantitative determination of soluble cellular proteins by radial diffusion in agar gels containing antibodies. Anal Biochem 19:434–440Google Scholar
  22. Ryan CA (1978) Proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves: a biochemical model for pest-induced natural plant protection. Trends Biochem Sci 5:148–151Google Scholar
  23. Ryan CA (1992) The search for the proteinase inhibitor inducing factor PIIF. Plant Mol Biol 19:123–133Google Scholar
  24. Somerville CR (1986) Analysis of photosynthesis with mutants of higher plants and algae. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:467–507Google Scholar
  25. Tal M, Nevo Y (1973) Abnormal stomatal behavior and root resistance, and hormonal imbalance in three wilty mutants of tomato. Biochem Genet 8:291–300Google Scholar
  26. Trautman R, Cowan KM, Wagner GG (1971) Data processing for radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry 8:901–916Google Scholar
  27. Walker-Simmons M, Ryan CA (1977) Immunological identification of proteinase inhibitors I and II in isolated tomato leaf vacuoles. Plant Physiol 60:61–63Google Scholar
  28. Walker-Simmons M, Ryan CA (1984) Proteinase inhibitor synthesis in tomato leaves. Induction by chitosan oligomers and chemically modified chitosan and chitin. Plant Physiol 76:787–799Google Scholar
  29. Wildon DC, Thain JF, Minchin PEH, Gubb IR, Reilly AJ, Skipper YD, Doherty HM, O'Donnell PJ, Bowles DJ (1992) Electrical signaling and systemic proteinase inhibitor induction in the wounded plant. Nature 360:62–65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Lightner
    • 1
  • Gregory Pearce
    • 1
  • Clarence A. Ryan
    • 1
  • John Browse
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological ChemistryWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations