Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 10–24 | Cite as

The lobes of lava flows on Earth and Olympus Mons, Mars

  • G Wadge
  • RMC Lopes
Article

Abstract

The lobate distal margins of lava flows provide a useful source of morphological information on the rheology of the lava if the lobes are assumed to represent the arrest of free-flowing isothermal Bingham fluids on a slope. The widths of lobes are a more useful practical index than lobe thicknesses because they are about an order of magnitude larger and can be more accurately measured from aerial photographs and other remote images. Lobes do not suffer from the changes in morphology that channels undergo during the course of eruptions. A terrestrial data set of flow lobe and ancillary measurements from lavas throughout the range alkali olivine basalt to rhyolite shows some features that are predicted by the isothermal Bingham fluid model. These are correlation of width and thickness over more than two orders of magnitude and essentially no correlation of aspect ratio with slope. There is a positive correlation of lobe width with silica content of the lava. From a data set of measurements on lava flow lobes from the Martian volcano Olympus Mons the mean value of aspect ratio (0.07) was found to be significantly less than that for the terrestrial data set (0.19). Higher general levels of effusion rate on Olympus Mons are probably the factor responsible. After normalisation, lobe widths on Olympus Mons are found to be largely equivalent to those expected for terrestrial flows with andesitic/basaltic silica contents.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson CA (1933) Volcanic history of Glass Mountain, northern California. Am J Sci 226:485–506Google Scholar
  2. Aramaki S (1956) The 1783 activity of Asama Volcano Part 1. Jpn J Geol Geogr 27:189–229Google Scholar
  3. Aramaki S, Hayakawa Y, Fuji T, Nakamura K, Fukuoka T (1986) The October 1983 eruption of Miyakejima volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 29:203–229Google Scholar
  4. Bacon CR, MacDonald R, Smith RL, Baedecker PA (1981) Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso Volcanic Field, Inyo County, California. J Geophys Res 86:10223–10241Google Scholar
  5. Bell JF, McCord TB, Lucey PG (1989) High spectral resolution 0.3–1.0 μm spectroscopy and imaging of Mars during the 1988 opposition: characterisation of Fe mineralogies. Fourth Int Conf Mars Progr Abstr, Tucson, Arizona, pp 67–68Google Scholar
  6. Bergman SC (1982) Petrogenetic aspects of the alkali basaltic lavas and included megacrysts and nodules from the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada, USA. PhD dissertation, Princeton University, p 432Google Scholar
  7. Blake S (1990) Viscoplastic models of lava domes. IAVCEI Proc Volcanol 2:88–126Google Scholar
  8. Borgia A, Linneman SC (1990) On the mechanisms of lava flow emplacement and volcano growth: Arenal, Costa Rica. In: Fink JH (ed) Lava flows and domes: emplacement mechanisms and hazard implications. IAVCEI Proc Volcanology, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 208–243Google Scholar
  9. Bottinga Y, Weill DF (1972) The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: a model for calculation. Am J Sci 272:438–475Google Scholar
  10. Bryan WB (1966) History and mechanism of eruption of sodarhyolite and alkali basalt, Socorro Island, Mexico. Bull Volcanol 29:453–479Google Scholar
  11. Carr MJ, Pontier NK (1981) Evolution of a young parasitic cone towards a mature central vent; Izalco and Santa Ana volcanoes in El Salvador, Central America. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 11:277–292Google Scholar
  12. Christensen PR (1982) Martian dust mantling and surface composition: Interpretation of thermophysical properties. J Geophys Res 87:9985–9998Google Scholar
  13. Clough BJ, Wright JV, Walker GPL (1982) Morphology and dimensions of the young comendite lavas of La Primavera volcano, Mexico. Geol Mag 119:477–485Google Scholar
  14. Cooke RJS (1981) Eruptions at Pago volcano 1911–1933. In: Johnson RW (ed) Cooke-Ravian Volume of Volcanological Papers. Geol Surv Papua New Guinea Memoir 10:135–146Google Scholar
  15. Crisp J, Baloga S (1990) A model for lava flows with two thermal components. J Geophys Res 95:1255–1270Google Scholar
  16. Dragoni M (1989) A dynamical model of lava flows cooling by radiation. Bull Volcanol 51:88–95Google Scholar
  17. Eichelberger JC (1975) Origin of andesite and dacite: Evidence of mixing at Glass Mountain in California and at other circum-Pacific volvanoes. Geol Soc Am Bull 86:1381–1391Google Scholar
  18. Fink JH (1983) Structure and emplacement of a rhyolitic obsidian flow: Little Glass Mountain, Medicine Lake Highland, northern California. Geol Soc Am Bull 94:362–380Google Scholar
  19. Fink JH, Zimbelman JR (1986) Rheology of the 1983 Royal Gardens basalt flows, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Bull Volcanol 48:87–96Google Scholar
  20. Francis PW, Roobol MJ, Walker GPL, Cobbold PR, Coward M (1974) The San Pedro and San Pablo volcanoes of northern Chile and their hot avalanche deposits. Geol Rundsch 63:357–388Google Scholar
  21. Frazzetta G, La Volpe L, Sheridan MF (1983) Evolution of the Fossa cone, Volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:329–360Google Scholar
  22. Fukuyama H, Ono K (1981) Geological map of Sakurajima volcano. Geol Surv JpnGoogle Scholar
  23. Gill JB (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Gonzalez Diaz E (1972) Description Geologica de la Hoja 30d, Payun Matru. Direc Gen Min Geol Hidrol, Bol 130, p 92Google Scholar
  25. Gregg DR (1956) Eruption of Ngauruhoe 1954–1955. NZ J Sci Tech B37:675–688Google Scholar
  26. Guest JE, Sanchez J (1969) A large dacitic lava flow in northern Chile. Bull Volcanol 33:778–790Google Scholar
  27. Hulme G (1974) The interpretation of lava flow morphology. Geophys J R Astr Soc 39:361–383Google Scholar
  28. Hulme G (1976) The determination of the rheological properties and effusion rate of an Olympus Mons lava. Icarus 27:207–213Google Scholar
  29. Huppert HE (1982) Flow and instability of a viscous current down a slope. Nature 300:427–429Google Scholar
  30. Huppert HE, Shepherd JB, Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ (1982) On lava dome growth with application to the 1979 lava extrusion of the Soufriere of St. Vincent. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 14:199–222Google Scholar
  31. Johnson RW, Chappell BW (1979) Chemical analyses of rocks from the late Cainozoic volcanoes of north-central New Britain and the Witu Islands, Papua New Guinea. Bur Min Resources Australia Rep 209Google Scholar
  32. Johnston-Lavis HJ (1909) The eruption of Vesuvius in April 1906. Trans Roy Dub Soc 9:139–200Google Scholar
  33. Keller J (1980) The island of Vulcano. Rend Soc Ital Min Petrol 36:369–414Google Scholar
  34. Krauskopf KB (1948) Lava movement in Paricutin volcano, Mexico. Bull Geol Soc Am 59:1267–1284Google Scholar
  35. Llambias EJ (1966) Geologia y petrografia del Volcan Payun-Matru. Acta Geol Lilloana 8:265–310Google Scholar
  36. Lipman PW, Banks NG (1987) Aa flow dynamics, Mauna Loa 1984. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:1527–1567Google Scholar
  37. Loney RA (1968) Flow structure and composition of the Southern Coulee, Mono Craters, California — a pumiceous rhyolite flow. Geol Soc Am Memoir 116:415–440Google Scholar
  38. Macdonald GA, Abbott TT (1970) Volcanoes in the Sea: The Geology of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  39. McBirney AR, Murase T (1984) Rheological properties of magmas. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 12:337–357Google Scholar
  40. Mahood GA (1981) A summary of the geology and petrology of the Sierra La Primavera, Jalisco, Mexico. J Geophys Res 86:10137–10152Google Scholar
  41. Miller CD (1980) Potential hazards from future eruptions in the vicinity of Mount Shasta Volcano, northern California. U S Geol Surv Bull 1503Google Scholar
  42. Minakami T (1951) On the temperature and viscosity of the fresh lava extruded in the 1951 Oo-sima eruption. Bull Earthqu Res Inst 29:487–493Google Scholar
  43. Moore HJ, Arthur DWG, Schaber GG (1978) Yield strengths of flows on the Earth, Mars and Moon. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 9th 3351–3378Google Scholar
  44. Moore RB, Wolfe EW, Ulrich GE (1976) Volcanic rock of the eastern and northern parts of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona. J Res U S Geol Surv 4:549–560Google Scholar
  45. Mouginis-Mark PJ (1981) Late-stage summit activity of Martian shield volcanoes. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 12B 1431–1447Google Scholar
  46. Murase T, McBirney AR (1973) Properties of some common igneous rocks and their melts at high temperatures. Geol Soc Am Bull 84:3563–3592Google Scholar
  47. Murase T, McBirney AR, Melson WG (1985) Viscosity of the dome of Mount St. Helens. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 24:193–204Google Scholar
  48. Nelson SA (1980) Geology and petrology of Volcan Ceboruco, Narayit, Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull Part II 91:2290–2431Google Scholar
  49. Ossaka J, Hirabayashi J (1971) Out-flow of lava and explosion of cinder on the eruption of Akita-Komagatake. Bull Volcanol Soc Jpn 16:122–134Google Scholar
  50. Pinkerton H, Sparks RSJ (1978) Field measurements of the rheology of lava. Nature 276:383–385Google Scholar
  51. Ramirez CF (1988) The geology of Socompa Volcano and its debris avalanche deposit, northern Chile. MSc dissertation, Open UniversityGoogle Scholar
  52. Reagan MK, Gill JB, Malavassi E, Garcia MO (1987) Changes in magma composition at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica, 1968–1985: Real-time monitoring of open-system differentiation. Bull Volcanol 49:415–434Google Scholar
  53. Robson GR (1967) Thickness of Etnean lavas. Nature 216:251–252Google Scholar
  54. Romano R, Sturiale C (1982) The historical eruptions of Mt. Etna (volcanological data). Mem Soc Geol It 23:75–97Google Scholar
  55. Rose WI (1987) Volcanic activity at Santiaguito volcano, 1976–1984. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 212:17–27Google Scholar
  56. Rose WI, Pearson T, Bonis S (1977) Nuee ardente eruption from the foot of a dacite lava flow, Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala. Bull Volcanol 40:53–70Google Scholar
  57. Rose WI, Stoiber RE (1969) The 1966 eruption of Izalco volcano, El Salvador. J Geophys Res 74:3119–3130Google Scholar
  58. Santacroce R (1987) Somma-Vesuvius. Quadreni de la Ricerca Scientifica 114, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche RomaGoogle Scholar
  59. Schaber GG, Boyce JM, Moore HJ (1976) The scarcity of mappable flow lobes on the lunar marra:unique morphology of the Imbrium flows. Proc Lunar Sci Conf 7th, pp 2783–2800Google Scholar
  60. Schaber GG, Horstman KC, Dial AL (1978) Lava flow materials in the Tharsis region of Mars. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 9th, pp 3433–3458Google Scholar
  61. Schaber GG, Elachi C, Farr TG, (1980) Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava Flow in north-central Arizona. Rem Sens Env 9:149–170Google Scholar
  62. Self S (1976) The Recent tephrochronology of Terceira, Azores. J Geol Soc Lond 132:645–666Google Scholar
  63. Self S, Gunn BM (1976) Petrology, volume and age relation in alkaline and peralkaline volcanics from Terceira, Azores. Contrib Mineral Petrol 54:293–313Google Scholar
  64. Shaw HR, Wright TL, Peck DL, Okamura R (1968) The viscosity of basaltic magmas: an analysis of field measurements in Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii. Am J Sci 266:225–264Google Scholar
  65. Sparks RSJ, Pinkerton H, Hulme G (1976) Classification and formation of lava levees on Mount Etna, Sicily. Geology 4:269–271Google Scholar
  66. Steiner A (1958) Petrogenetic implications of the 1954 Ngauruhoe lava and its xenoliths. N Z J Geol Geophys 1:325–363Google Scholar
  67. Tanguy J-C (1980) L'Etna. Etude petrologique et paleomagnetique implications volcanologiques. Doctorat d'Etat thesis, Université Pièrre et Marie Curie ParisGoogle Scholar
  68. Theilig E, Greeley R (1986) Lava flows on Mars: Analysis of small surface features and comparisons with terrestrial analogs. J Geophys Res 91:E193-E203Google Scholar
  69. Thorpe RS, Francis PW (1975) Volcan Ceboruco: A major composite volcano in the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Bull Volcanol 39:201–213Google Scholar
  70. USGS (1981) Special topographic map of Mars, Olympus Mons. U S Geol Surv M IM 19/134TGoogle Scholar
  71. VEST (1981) The March 1981 eruption of Mount Etna. Preliminary, informal report to the Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Wadge G (1983) The magma budget of Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica from 1968 to 1980. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 19:281–302Google Scholar
  73. Walker GPL (1967) Thickness and viscosity of Etnean lavas. Nature 213:484–485Google Scholar
  74. Walker GPL (1973) Lengths of lava flows. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 274:107–118Google Scholar
  75. Wilcox RE (1954) Petrology of the Paricutin Volcano U S Geol Surv Bull 965-C:281–353Google Scholar
  76. Williams HA, McBirney AR (1979) Volcanology. Freeman Cooper, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilson L, Head JW (1983) A comparison of volcanic eruption processes on Earth, Moon, Mars, Io and Venus. Nature 302:663–669Google Scholar
  78. Wilson L, Head JW (1988) The influence of gravity on planetary eruption rates. Proc Lunar Planet Sci Conf 19th, pp 1283–1284Google Scholar
  79. Wolfe EW, Garcia MO, Jackson DB, Koyanagi RY, Neal CA, Okamura AT (1986) The Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Episodes 1–20, January 1983 to June 1984. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350:471–508Google Scholar
  80. Young PAV, Wadge G (1990) FLOWFRONT: simulation of a lava flow. Comput Geosci 16:1171–1192Google Scholar
  81. Zimbelman JR (1985) Estimates of the rheologic properties for flows on the Martian Volcano Ascraeus Mons. J Geophys Res 90:D157-D162Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G Wadge
    • 1
  • RMC Lopes
    • 2
  1. 1.NERC Unit for Thematic Information Systems, Department of GeographyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations