Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 153, Issue 1, pp 79–84 | Cite as

Two new species of anaerobic oxalate-fermenting bacteria, Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. and Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov., from sediment samples

  • Irmtraut Dehning
  • Bernhard Schink
Original Papers


Two types of new anaerobic bacteria were isolated from anoxic freshwater sediments. They grew in mineral medium with oxalate as sole energy source and with acetate as main carbon source. Oxalate as well as oxamate (after deamination) were decarboxylated to formate with growth yields of 1.2–1.4 g dry cell matter per mol oxalate degraded. No other organic or inorganic substrates were used, and no electron acceptors were reduced. Strain WoOx3 was a Gramnegative, non-sporeforming, motile vibrioid rod with a guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA of 51.6 mol%. It resembled the previously described genus Oxalobacter, and is described as a new species, O. vibrioformis. Strain AltOx1 was a Gram-positive, spore-forming, motile rod with a DNA base ratio of 36.3 mol% guanine-plus-cytosine. This isolate is described as a new species of the genus Clostridium, C. oxalicum.

Key words

Anaerobic oxalate degradation Membrane energetization Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AllisonMJ, LittedikeET, JamesLF (1977) Changes in ruminal oxalate degradation rates associated with adaptation to oxalate ingestion. J Anim Sci 45: 1173–1179Google Scholar
  2. AllisonMJ, DawsonKA, MayberryWR, FossJG (1985) Oxalobacter formigenes gen. nov., sp. nov.: oxalate-degrading anaerobes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Arch Microbiol 141: 1–7Google Scholar
  3. AnantharamV, AllisonMJ, MaloneyPC (1989) Oxalate: formate exchange: The basis for energy coupling in Oxalobacter. J Biol Chem 264: 7244–7250Google Scholar
  4. BhatJV (1966) Enrichment culture technique. J Sci Ind Res New Delhi 25: 450–454Google Scholar
  5. BlendenDC, GoldbergHS (1965) Silver impregnation stain for Leptospira and flagella. J Bacteriol 89: 899–900Google Scholar
  6. ChandraTS, ShethnaYI (1975) Isolation and characterization of some new oxalate-decomposing bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol Serol 41: 465–477Google Scholar
  7. ClineJD (1969) Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 14: 454–458Google Scholar
  8. DawsonKA, AllisonMJ, HartmanPA (1980) Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol 40: 833–839Google Scholar
  9. DehningI, SchinkB (1989) Malonomonas rubra gen. nov. sp. nov., a microaerotolerant anaerobic bacterium growing by decarboxylation of malonate. Arch Microbiol 151: 427–433Google Scholar
  10. DehningI, StiebM, SchinkB (1989) Sporomusa malonica sp. nov., a homoacetogenic bacterium growing by decarboxylation of malonate and succinate. Arch Microbiol 151: 421–426Google Scholar
  11. DeLeyJ (1970) Reexamination of the association between melting point, buoyant density and the chemical base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid. J Bacteriol 101: 738–754Google Scholar
  12. DiekertG, ThauerRK (1978) Carbon monoxide oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and C. formicoaceticum. J Bacteriol 136: 597–606Google Scholar
  13. DiekertG, SchraderE, HarderW (1986) Energetics of CO formation and CO oxidation in cell suspensions of Acetobacterium woodii. Arch Microbiol 144: 386–392Google Scholar
  14. DijkhuizenL, WiersmaM, HarderW (1977) Energy production and growth of Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1 on oxalate and formate. Arch Microbiol 115: 229–236Google Scholar
  15. HilpertW, SchinkB, DimrothP (1984) Life by a new decarboxylation-dependent energy conservation mechanism with Na+ as coupling ion. EMBO J 3: 1665–1670Google Scholar
  16. HodgkinsonA (1977) Oxalic acid in biology and medicine. Academic Press, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. JakobyWB, BhatJV (1958) Microbial metabolism of oxalic acid. Bacteriol Rev 22: 75–80Google Scholar
  18. KrzyckiJA, ZeikusJG (1984) Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri. J Bacteriol 158: 231–237Google Scholar
  19. LangE, LangH (1972) Spezifische Farbreaktion zum direkten Nachweis der Ameisensäure. Z Anal Chem 260: 8–10Google Scholar
  20. MageeCM, RodeheaverG, EdgertonMT, EdlichRF (1975) A more reliable Gram staining technic for diagnosis of surgical infections. Am J Surg 130: 341–346Google Scholar
  21. MarmurJ (1961) A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J Mol Biol 3: 208–218Google Scholar
  22. MorrisMP, Garcia-RiveraJ (1955) The destruction of oxalate by rumen contents of cows. J Dairy Sci 38: 1169Google Scholar
  23. PfennigN, TrüperHG (1981) Isolation of members of the families Chromatiaceae and Chlorobiaceae. In: StarrMP, StolpH, TrüperHG, BalowsA, SchlegelHG (eds) The prokaryotes, vol I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 279–289Google Scholar
  24. PostgateJR (1963) A strain of Desulfovibrio able to use oxamate. Arch Mikrobiol 46: 287–295Google Scholar
  25. QuayleJR (1961) Metabolism of C1 compounds in autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. Ann Rev Microbiol 15: 119–152Google Scholar
  26. SchinkB, PfennigN (1982) Propionigenium modestum gen. nov. sp. nov., a new strictly anaerobic, nonsporing bacterium growing on succinate. Arch Microbiol 133: 209–216Google Scholar
  27. SmithRL, OremlandRS (1983) Anaerobic oxalate degradation: widespread natural occurrence in aquatic sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 46: 106–113Google Scholar
  28. SmithRL, StrohmaierFE, OremlandRS (1985) Isolation of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from freshwater lake sediments. Arch Microbiol 141: 8–13Google Scholar
  29. ThauerRK, JungermannK, DeckerK (1977) Energy conservation of chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 41: 100–180Google Scholar
  30. ThimannKV, BonnerWD (1950) Organic acid metabolism. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 1: 75–108Google Scholar
  31. UffenRL (1976) Anaerobic growth of a Rhodopseudomonas species in the dark with carbon monoxide as sole carbon and energy substrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 3298–3302Google Scholar
  32. WiddelF, PfennigN (1981) Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. I. Isolation of a new sulfate-reducer enriched with acetate from saline environments. Description of Desulfobacter postgatei gen. nov. sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 129: 395–400Google Scholar
  33. WiddelF, KohringGW, MayerF (1983) Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids. III. Characterization of the filamentous gliding Desulfonema limicola gen. nov. sp. nov., and Desulfonema magnum sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 134: 286–294Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irmtraut Dehning
    • 1
  • Bernhard Schink
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl Mikrobiologie IEberhard-Karls-UniversitätTübingenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations