Fractionation of wheat gliadin and glutenin subunits by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the role of group 6 and group 2 chromosomes in gliadin synthesis
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Subunits of wheat endosperm proteins have been fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. To determine which subunits in the two-dimensional electrophoretic pattern belong to gliadin or glutenin the endosperm proteins have also been fractionated by a modified Osborne procedure and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and Sepharose CL-4B prior to separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis.
The control of production of five major grain protein subunits is shown to be determined by chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D by comparing two-dimensional electrophoretic protein subunit patterns of aneuploid lines of the variety ‘Chinese Spring’. From these and previous studies it is concluded that some α, β and γ gliadins (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE 30,000 to 40,000) are specified by genes on the short arms of homoeologous Group 6 chromosomes, the ω gliadins (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE 50,000 to 70,000) are specified by genes on the short arms of homoeologous Group 1 chromosomes and the glutenin subunits (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE > 85,000) are specified by genes on the long arms of homoeologous Group 1 chromosomes.
No major gliadins or glutenin subunits were absent when any of the chromosomes in homoeologous Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7 were deleted. However two gliadins whose presumed structural genes are on chromosome 6D were absent in aneuploid stocks of ‘Chinese Spring’ carrying two additional doses of chromosome 2A. Two out of thirty-three intervarietal or interspecific chromosome substitution lines examined, involving homoeologous Group 2 chromosomes, lacked the same two gliadins. All the subunits in the other thirty-one chromosome substitution lines were indistinguishable from those in ‘Chinese Spring’. It is therefore concluded that the major variation affecting gliadin and glutenins in wheat is concentrated on the chromosomes of homoeologous Groups 1 and 6 but Group 2 chromosomes are candidates for further study.
An endosperm protein controlled by chromosome 4D in ‘Chinese Spring’ is shown to be a high molecular weight globulin.
Key-wordsTriticum aestivum Glutenin Gliadin Electrophoresis
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