Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 20–26 | Cite as

Nuclear DNA changes within Helianthus annuus L.: cytophotometric, karyological and biochemical analyses

  • A. Cavallini
  • C. Zolfino
  • G. Cionini
  • R. Cremonini
  • L. Natali
  • O. Sassoli
  • P. G. Cionini
Article

Summary

Cytophotometric measurement of the root meristems of seedlings after Feulgen-staining reveals that large differences (up to 58.16%) in nuclear DNA content may occur in the thirty-one cultivated varieties or lines of Helianthus annuus tested. Significant variations (not exceeding 25%) in the amount of DNA, which does not differ between the root and the shoot meristems of a single seedling, are also found to exist within cultivars or lines; even seedlings obtained from seeds collected from different portions of single heads of plants belonging to a selfed line may vary one from the other in this respect. Variations in the number of chromosomes or alterations in the chromosome structure do not account for the differences observed in nuclear DNA content. Karyometric analyses demonstrate that the surface area of squashed interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes and the total length of the latter increase with the increase in Feulgen/DNA absorption. DNA thermal denaturation and reassociation kinetics indicate that a frequency variation in repeated DNA sequences goes hand in hand with changes in the size of the genome. These results, supporting the concept that a plant genome is highly flexible, are discussed in relation to other data to be found in the literature on the intraspecific variation in the nuclear DNA content and in relation to the way in which it is produced in H. annuus.

Key words

Helianthus annuus Intraspecific DNA changes Cytophotometry Karyology Chemicophysical DNA characterization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bassi P, Cionini PG, Cremonini R, Seghizzi P (1984) Under-representation of nuclear DNA sequences in differentiating root cells of Vicia faba. Protoplasma 123:70–77Google Scholar
  2. Bendich AJ, Anderson RS, Ward BL (1980) Plant DNA: long, pure and simple. In: Leaver CJ (ed) Genome organization and expression in plants. Plenum, New York London, pp 31–33Google Scholar
  3. Bennett MD, Smith JB (1976) Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, Ser B 274:227–274Google Scholar
  4. Britten RJ, Graham DE, Neufeld BR (1974) Analysis of repeating DNA sequences by reassociation. Meth Enzymol 29:363–405Google Scholar
  5. Cavallini A, Cionini PG (1986) Nuclear DNA content in differentiated tissues of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protoplasma 130:91–97Google Scholar
  6. Cavallini A, Cremonini R (1985) Aneusomaty in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Z Pflanzenzücht 95:118–124Google Scholar
  7. Clewell DB, Helinski DR (1969) Supercoiled circular DNA-protein complex in Escherichia coli: purification and induced conversion to an open circular DNA form. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 62:1159–1166Google Scholar
  8. Cremonini R, Cavallini A (1986) Origin and fate of aneusomaty in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Z Pflanzenzücht 97:89–92Google Scholar
  9. Cremonini R, Cionini PG (1977) Extra DNA synthesis in embryo suspensor cells of Phaseolus coccineus. Protoplasma 91:303–313Google Scholar
  10. Cullis CA (1983) Environmentally induced changes in plants. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 1:117–131Google Scholar
  11. Dhir NK, Miksche JP (1974) Intraspecific variation of nuclear DNA content in Pinus resinosa Ait. Can J Genet Cytol 16:77–83Google Scholar
  12. Durante M, Tagliasacchi AM, Avanzi S (1985) Fast reannealing sequences of DNA in Allium cepa: characterization and chromosomal localization. Cytobios 44:263–271Google Scholar
  13. El-Lakany MH, Sziklai O (1971) Intraspecific variation in nuclear characteristics of Douglas fir. Adv Front Plant Sci 28:363–378Google Scholar
  14. Greenlee JK, Rai KS, Floyd AD (1984) Intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content in Collinsia verna Nutt. (Scrophulariaceae). Heredity 52:235–242Google Scholar
  15. Hutchinson J, Narayan RKJ, Rees H (1980) Constraints upon the composition of supplementary DNA. Chromosoma 78:137–145Google Scholar
  16. Jackson RC, Murray BG (1983) Colchicine induced quadrivalent formation in Helianthus: evidence for ancient polyploidy. Theor Appl Genet 64:219–222Google Scholar
  17. Lima-De-Faria A (1983) Molecular evolution and organization of the chromosome. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Kodama A (1974) Karyotype analyses of crown gall cells of the sunflower. Bull Hiroshima Agric Coll 5:15–21Google Scholar
  19. Marsh JL, McCarthy BJ (1974) Effect of reaction conditions on the reassociation of divergent deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. Biochemistry 13:3382–3388Google Scholar
  20. Michaelson M, Price HJ (1985) Nuclear DNA content variation within Helianthus annuus L. Am J Bot 72:877Google Scholar
  21. Miksche JP (1968) Quantitative study of intraspecific variation of DNA per cell in Picea glauca and Pinus banksiana. Can J Genet Cytol 10:590–600Google Scholar
  22. Miksche JP (1971) Intraspecific variation of DNA per cell between Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr provenances. Chromosoma 32:343–352Google Scholar
  23. Miksche JP, Hotta Y (1973) DNA base composition and repetitious DNA in several conifers. Chromosoma 41:29–36Google Scholar
  24. Nagl W, Capesius I (1976) Molecular and cytological characteristics of nuclear DNA and chromatin for angiosperm systematics: basic data for Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae). Plant Syst Evol 126:221–237Google Scholar
  25. Natali L, Cavallini A, Cremonini R, Bassi P, Cionini PG (1986) Amplification of nuclear DNA sequences during induced plant cell dedifferentiation. Cell Differ 18:157–161Google Scholar
  26. Olszewska MJ, Osiecka R (1983) The relationship between 2C DNA content, life cycle type, systematic position, and the dynamics of DNA endoreduplication in parenchyma nuclei during growth and differentiation of roots in some dicotyledonous herbaceous species. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 178:581–599Google Scholar
  27. Price HJ (1976) Evolution of DNA content in higher plants. Bot Rev 42:27–52Google Scholar
  28. Price HJ, Bachmann K, Chambers KL, Riggs J (1980) Detection of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content in Microseris douglasii. Bot Gaz 141:195–198Google Scholar
  29. Price HJ, Chambers KL, Bachmann K (1981) Genome size variation in diploid Microseris bigelovii (Asteraceae). Bot Gaz 142:156–159Google Scholar
  30. Schaffner KH, Nagl W (1979) Differential DNA replication involved in transition from juvenile to adult phase in Hedera helix. Plant Syst Evol (Suppl) 2:105–110Google Scholar
  31. Walbot V, Cullis CA (1985) Rapid genome changes in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 36:367–396Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cavallini
    • 1
  • C. Zolfino
    • 1
  • G. Cionini
    • 2
  • R. Cremonini
    • 3
  • L. Natali
    • 1
  • O. Sassoli
    • 1
  • P. G. Cionini
    • 3
  1. 1.Istituto di Genetica della UniversitàPisaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Mutagenesi e Differenziamento del C.N.R.PisaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche della UniversitàPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations