Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency with full expression of the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
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A patient with the full clinical expression of the classical Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is presented with a residual hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity of 5–10% in erythrocyte lysate and about 30% in fibroblast lysate. The activities of other erythrocyte enzymes of purine metabolism were typical for a classical Lesch-Nyhan patient. The effects of allopurinol therapy on the excretion of urinary purine metabolites were studied by a newly developed isotachophoretic technique.
The unusually high residual activity of HGPRT in erythrodytes and fibroblasts of the patient enabled the enzymologic characterization of the mutant enzyme: in fibroblasts the affinities for the substrates hypoxanthine and guanine were normal. However, there was an increased apparent Km for phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), a complete absence of product inhibition by IMP and GMP, and a decreased heat stability. Addition of PRPP did not stabilize the mutant enzyme. In addition to the altered properties of the fibroblast enzyme, the Km of the erythrocyte enzyme for hypoxanthine was also increased.
Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed the presence of an approximately normal amount of material cross-reacting with anti-human HGPRT antiserum. However, it appeared that this cross-reacting material had a decreased stability. When intact erythrocytes were incubated with radiolabeled purine bases, no formation of IMP or GMP could be detected, despite the relatively high residual activity of HGPRT in the hemolysate. The results fit the following hypothesis: as a consequence of a structural mutation affecting the PRPP-site of the enzyme and a decreased heat stability, the activity of the mutant enzyme under in vivo conditions is virtually zero.
In the erythrocytes of the patient's mother a normal HGPRT-activity was found. However, the activity in her fibroblasts was lower than normal, while a decreased heat stability and an intermediate behavior towards IMP could be shown.
Hair root analysis of several members of the patient's family confirmed the heterozygosity of the mother, whereas no other heterozygotes could be detected. The family anamnesis did not show other cases of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. These findings were taken as evidence that the patient described in this paper might represent a mutation orginating from the gametes in either of the maternal grandparents.
KeywordsAllopurinol Mutant Enzyme Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Maternal Grandparent Erythrocyte Enzyme
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