Molecular and General Genetics MGG

, Volume 168, Issue 1, pp 111–115 | Cite as

High frequency transformation of Bacillus subtilis protoplasts by plasmid DNA

  • Shing Chang
  • Stanley N. Cohen
Short Communication


A highly efficient method for transformation of Bacillus subtilis by plasmid DNA is reported. The procedure, which involves polyethylene glycolinduced DNA uptake by protoplasts and subsequent regeneration of the bacterial cell wall, yields up to 80% transformants with an efficiency of 4x107 transformants per μg of supercoiled DNA. Plasmids constructed by in vitro ligation or endonuclease-generated fragments of linear plasmid DNA can also transform PEG-treated protoplasts, but at a lower frequency.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shing Chang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stanley N. Cohen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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