Inheritance of the ability to respond in wheat anther culture was studied from 6×2 reciprocal crosses between six varieties with high and two varieties with low capacity for green plant formation and their parents, replicated in two environments. Effects of genotypes dominated embryo formation and percentages of green plants, accounting for 78.4% and 85.4% of total variation, respectively, while smaller genetic effects were indicated for regeneration. Nuclear genes could explain almost all the genotype effects in this material. Embryo formation showed heterosis over high parent for 5 of the 12 hybrids, while percentages of green plants from the hybrids were intermediate to the parents. General Combining Ability (GCA) could explain 78.8% of the variation for embryo formation among the hybrids, whereas differences in percentage of green plants were dominated by Specific Combining Ability (SCA), accounting for 67.9% of hybrid variation. A positive correlation (r=0.81**) was observed between the genetic capacity for regeneration and green plant formation. Analysis of covariance indicated that effects causing GCA for green plant formation were mainly responsible for this correlation. A regression model with two parallel lines divided the six parent lines with high green plant formation into three groups with respect to their reactions with the two testers. The results are discussed with regard to possible involvement of two sets of nuclear genes affecting the percentage of green plants obtained in wheat anther culture: one set consisting of mainly additive effects affecting green plant percentage through an initial effect on regeneration ability, and another set of two or a few more major genes with dominance or epistatic effects uncorrelated with regeneration.
Wheat Anther culture Androgenetic responsiveness Albinism Genetic control