Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 321–332 | Cite as

Diversity and evolution of chloroplast DNA in Triticum and Aegilops as revealed by restriction fragment analysis

  • Y. Ogihara
  • K. Tsunewaki
Article

Summary

Restriction fragment analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNAs from 35 wheat (Triticum) and Aegilops species, including their 42 accessions, was carried out with the use of 13 restriction enzymes to clarify variation in their cpDNAs. Fourteen fragment size mutations (deletions/insertions) and 33 recognition site changes were detected among 209 restriction sites sampled. Based on these results, the 42 accessions of wheat-Aegilops could be classified into 16 chloroplast genome types. Most polyploids and their related diploids showed identical restriction fragment patterns, indicating the conservatism of the chloroplast genome during speciation, and maternal lineages of most polyploids were disclosed. This classification of cpDNAs was principally in agreement with that of the plasma types assigned according to phenotypes arising from nucleus-cytoplasm interactions. These mutations detected by restriction fragment analysis were mapped on the physical map of common wheat cpDNA, which was constructed with 13 restriction endonucleases. Length mutations were more frequently observed in some regions than in others: in a 16.0 kilo base pairs (kbp) of DNA region, including rbcL and petA genes, 6 of 14 length mutations were concentrated. This indicates that hot spot regions exist for deletions/insertions in chloroplast genome. On the other hand, 33 recognition site mutations seemed to be distributed equally throughout the genome, except in the inverted repeat region where only one recognition site change was observed. Base substitution rate (p) of cpDNA was similar to that of other plants, such as Brassica, pea and Lycopersicon, showing constant base substitution rates among related taxa and slow evolution of cpDNA compared with animal mitochondrial DNA. Phylogenetic relationships among Triticum and Aegilops species were discussed, based on the present data.

Key words

Evolution of cpDNA Restriction fragment analysis Wheat-Aegilops species Phylogenetic relationships 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Birnboim HC, Doly J (1979) A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 7:1513–1523Google Scholar
  2. Bowman CM, Dyer TA (1986) The location and possible evolutionary significance of small dispersed repeats in wheat ctDNA. Curr Genet 10:931–941Google Scholar
  3. Bowman CM, Koller B, Delius H, Dyer TA (1981) A physical map of wheat chloroplast DNA showing the location of the structural genes for the ribosomal RNAs and the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Mol Gen Genet 183:93–101Google Scholar
  4. Bowman CM, Bonnard G, Dyer TA (1983) Chloroplast DNA variation between species of Triticum and Aegilops. Location of the variation on the chloroplast genome and its relevance to the inheritance and classification of the cytoplasm. Theor Appl Genet 65:247–262Google Scholar
  5. Brown WM, George M Jr, Wilson AC (1979) Rapid evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:1967–1971Google Scholar
  6. Correns C (1909) Vererbungsversuche mit blass (gelb) grunen und buntblattrigen Sippen bei Mirabilis, Urtica und Lunaria. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungsl 1:291–329Google Scholar
  7. Day A, Ellis THN (1984) Chloroplast DNA deletions associated with wheat plants regenerated from pollen: Possible basis for maternal inheritance of chloroplasts. Cell 39:359–368Google Scholar
  8. DeSalle R, Giddings LV, Tempelton AR (1986) Mitochondrial DNA variability in natural populations of Hawaiian Drosophila. I. Methods and levels of variability in D. sylvestris and D. heteroneura populations. Heredity 56:75–85Google Scholar
  9. Enomoto S, Ogihara Y, Tsunewaki K (1985) Studies on the origin of crop species by restriction endonuclease analysis of organellar DNA. I. Phylogenetic relationships among ten cereals revealed by the restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast DNA. Jpn J Genet 60:411–424Google Scholar
  10. Fukasawa H (1953) Studies on restoration and substitution of nucleus in Aegilotricum. I. Appearance of male-sterile durum in substitution crosses. Cytologia 18:167–175Google Scholar
  11. Gordon KHJ, Crouse EJ, Bohnert HJ, Herrman RG (1982) Physical mapping of differences in chloroplast DNA of the five wild-type plastomes in Oenothera subsection Euoenothera. Theor Appl Genet 61:373–384Google Scholar
  12. Grun P (1976) Cytoplasmic genetics and evolution. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Howe CJ (1985) The endopoints of an inversion in wheat chloroplast DNA are associated with short repeated sequences containing homology to att-lambda. Curr Genet 10:139–145Google Scholar
  14. Kihara H (1951) Substitution of nucleus and its effects on genome manifestations. Cytologia 16:177–193Google Scholar
  15. Kihara H (1954) Consideration on the evolution and distribution of Aegilops species based on the analyser-method. Cytologia 19:336–357Google Scholar
  16. Kihara H, Tanaka M (1970) Addendum to the classification of the genus Aegilops by means of genome-analysis. Wheat Inf Serv 30:1–2Google Scholar
  17. Kolodner R, Tewari KK (1975) The molecular size and conformation of the chloroplast DNA from higher plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 402:372–390Google Scholar
  18. Kung SS, Zhu YS, Shen GF (1982) Nicotiana chloroplast genome. III. Chloroplast DNA evolution. Theor Appl Genet 61:73–79Google Scholar
  19. Lonsdale DM, Hodge TP, Fauron CM-R (1984) The physical map and organization of the mitochondrial genome from the fertile cytoplasm of maize. Nucleic Acids Res 12:9249–9261Google Scholar
  20. Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J (1982) Molecular cloning. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar
  21. Murai K, Tsunewaki K (1986) Molecular basis of genetic diversity among cytoplasms of Triticum and Aegilops species. IV. CtDNA variation in Ae. triuncialis. Heredity 57:335–339Google Scholar
  22. O'Connell MA, Hanson MR (1985) Somatic hybridization between Lycopersicon esculentum and Lycopersicon pennellii. Theor Appl Genet 70:1–12Google Scholar
  23. Ogihara Y, Tsunewaki K (1982) Molecular basis of the genetic diversity of the cytoplasm in Triticum and Aegilops. I. Diversity of the chloroplast genome and its lineage revealed by the restriction pattern of ct-DNAs. Jpn J Genet 57:371–396Google Scholar
  24. Palmer JD (1985) Comparative organization of chloroplast genomes. Ann Rev Genet 19:325–354Google Scholar
  25. Palmer JD, Zamir D (1982) Chloroplast DNA evolution and phylogenetic relationships in Lycopersicon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:5006–5010Google Scholar
  26. Palmer JD, Shields CR, Cohen DB, Orton TJ (1983) Chloroplast DNA evolution and the origin of amphidiploid Brassica species. Theor Appl Genet 65:181–189Google Scholar
  27. Palmer JD, Jorgensen RA, Thompson WF (1985) Chloroplast DNA variation and evolution in Pisum: Patterns of change and phylogenetic analysis. Genetics 109:195–213Google Scholar
  28. Palmer JD, Nugent JM, Herbon LA (1987) Unusual structure of geranium chloroplast DNA: A triple-sized inverted repeat, extensive gene duplications, multiple inversions, and two repeat families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:769–773Google Scholar
  29. Pring DR, Levings III CS (1978) Heterogeneity of maize cytoplasmic genomes among male-sterile cytoplasms. Genetics 89:121–136Google Scholar
  30. Rigby PWJ, Dieckmann M, Rhodes C, Berg P (1977) Labelling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol 113:237–251Google Scholar
  31. Sneath P, Sokal R (1973) Numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San FransiscoGoogle Scholar
  32. Tassopulu D, Kung SD (1984) Nicotiana chloroplast genome 6. Deletion and hot-spot — a proposal origin of the inverted repeats. Theor Appl Genet 67:185–193Google Scholar
  33. Tsunewaki K (1980) Genetic diversity of the cytoplasm in Triticum and Aegilops. Jpn Soc Prom Sci, Tokyo, pp 1–290Google Scholar
  34. Tsunewaki K, Ogihara Y (1983) The molecular basis of genetic diversity among cytoplasms of Triticum and Aegilops species. II. On the origin of polyploid wheat cytoplasms as suggested by chloroplast DNA restriction fragment patterns. Genetics 104:155–171Google Scholar
  35. Zurawski G, Clegg MT, Brown AHD (1984) The nature of nucleotide sequence divergence between barley and maize chloroplast DNA. Genetics 106:735–749Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Ogihara
    • 1
  • K. Tsunewaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Kihara Institute for Biological ResearchYokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Genetics, Faculty of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations