Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 161, Issue 2, pp 125–131 | Cite as

Changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during starvation in adult Manduca sexta

  • Rolf Ziegler


Adult Manduca sexta feed very irregularly in the laboratory, and many adult males never feed. Feeding adults live longer and feeding females lay many more eggs; however, in both feeding (sugar water) and starving adults a decrease of metabolic reserves is observed. Carbohydrates disappear from hemolymph and from fat body. Fat body lipid also decreases, while hemolymph lipid concentration increases strongly in starving adults. The activity of fat body glycogen phosphorylase increases strongly in starving adult M. sexta. The activity of glycogen phosphorylase is correlated inversely with hemolymph sugar concentration. Injected trehalose inactivates glycogen phosphorylase within 2 h, and lowers the hemolymph lipid level within 6 h. In starving adult M. sexta, neither the activation of glycogen phosphorylase nor the increase of hemolymph lipid concentration depends on adipokinetic hormone, since cardiacectomy does not prevent the activation of glycogen phosphorylase nor the increase of hemolymph lipid level.

Key words

Starvation in Manduca sexta Level and amount of lipid Decrease of carbohydrate Cardiacectomy Glycogen phosphorylase activation 



adipokinetic hormone


ethylenediamine tetraacetate


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bhaskaran G (1981) Regulation of corpus allatum activity in last instar Manduca sexta larvae. In: Bhaskaran G, Friedman S, Rodriguez JG (eds) Current topics in insect endocrinology and nutrition. Plenum Press, New York, London, pp 53–82Google Scholar
  2. Cheeseman P, Goldsworthy GJ (1979) The release of adipokinetic hormone during flight and starvation in Locusta. Gen Comp Endocrinol 37:35–43Google Scholar
  3. Folch J, Lees M, Sloan-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biol Chem 226:497–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gies A, Fromm T, Ziegler R (1988) Energy metabolism in starving larvae of M. sexta. Comp Biochem Physiol 91A:549–555Google Scholar
  5. Goldsworthy GJ, Cheeseman P (1978) Comparative aspects of the endocrine control of energy metabolism. In: Gaillard PJ, Boer HH (eds) Comparative endocrinology. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 423–436Google Scholar
  6. Jungreis AM, Jatlow P, Wyatt GR (1973) Inorganic ion composition of haemolymph of the Cecropia silkmoth; changes with diet and ontogeny. J Insect Physiol 19:225–233Google Scholar
  7. Jutsum AR, Agarwal HC, Goldsworthy GJ (1975) Starvation and haemolymph lipids in Locusta migratoria (R&F). Acrida 4:47–52Google Scholar
  8. Mokrasch LC (1954) Analysis of hexose phospates and sugar mixtures with the anthrone reagent. J Biol Chem 208:55–59Google Scholar
  9. Mwangi RW, Goldsworthy GJ (1977) Interrelationships between haemolymph lipid and carbohydrate during starvation in Locusta. J Insect Physiol 23:1275–1280Google Scholar
  10. Reinecke JP, Buckner JS, Grugel SR (1980) Life cycle of laboratory-reared tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, a study of development and behavior, using time-lapse cinematography. Biol Bull 159:129–140Google Scholar
  11. Siegert K (1987) Carbohydrate metabolism in starved fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 4:151–160Google Scholar
  12. siegert K (1988) Hormonal regulation of fat body glycogen phosphorylase activity in larval Manduca sexta during starvation. Gen Comp Endocrinol 71:201–211Google Scholar
  13. Siegert K, Ziegler R (1983) A hormone from the corpora cardiaca controls fat body glycogen phosphorylase during starvation in tobacco hornworm larvae. Nature (Lond.) 301:526–527Google Scholar
  14. Wegener G (1987) Insect brain metabolism under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In: Gupta AP (ed) Arthropod brain: its evolution, development, structure, and function. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp 369–397Google Scholar
  15. Wyatt GR (1967) Biochemistry of sugars and polysaccharides in insects. Adv Insect Physiol 4:287–360Google Scholar
  16. Ziegler R (1979) Hyperglycaemic factor from the corpora cardiaca of Manduca sexta. Gen Comp Endocrinol 39:350–357Google Scholar
  17. Ziegler R (1984) Developmental changes in the response of the fat body of Manduca sexta to injections of corpora cardiaca extracts. Gen Comp Endocrinol 54:51–58Google Scholar
  18. Ziegler R (1985) Metabolic energy expenditure and its hormonal regulation. In: Hoffmann KH (ed) Environmental physiology and biochemistry of insects. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 95–118Google Scholar
  19. Ziegler R, Schulz M (1986a) Regulation of lipid metabolism during flight in Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 32:903–908Google Scholar
  20. Ziegler R, Schulz M (1986 b) Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during flight in Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 32:997–1001Google Scholar
  21. Ziegler R, Ashida M, Fallon AM, Wimer LT, Wyatt SS, Wyatt GR (1979) Regulation of glycogen phosphorylase in fat body of Cecropia silkmoth pupae. J Comp Physiol 131:321–332Google Scholar
  22. Ziegler R, Eckart K, Law JH (1990) Adipokinetic hormone controls lipid metabolism in adults and carbohydrate metabolism in larvae of Manduca sexta. Peptides 11, 1037–1040Google Scholar
  23. Zöllner N, Kirsch K (1962) Über die quantitative Bestimmung von Lipoiden (Mikromethode) mittels der vielen natürlichen Lipoiden (allen bekannten Plasmalipoiden) gemeinsamen Sulfophospho-vanillin-Reaktion. Z Ges Exp Med 135:545–561Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf Ziegler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Tierphysiologie der Freien Universität BerlinBerlin 33Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations