Advertisement

Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 32–38 | Cite as

Quantification and potential availability of non-symbiotically fixed 15N in soil

  • F. Azam
  • R. L. Mulvaney
  • F. J. Stevenson
Article

Summary

Non-symbiotic N2 fixation was studied under laboratory conditions in two soils from Pakistan (Hafizabad silt loam and Khurrarianwala silt loam) and one from Illinois, USA (Drummer silty clay loam) incubated in a 15N-enriched atmosphere. N2 fixation was greatest with the Drummer soil (18–122 μg g−1 soil, depending upon the soil treatment) and lowest with the Khurrarianwala soil (4–81 μg g−1 soil). Fixation was increased by the addition of glucose, a close correlation being observed between the amount of glucose added and the amount of N2 fixed in the three soils (r = 0.96). Efficiency of N2 fixation varied with soil type and treatment and was greatest in the presence of added inorganic P. Application of Mo apparently had a negative effect on the amount and efficiency of N2 fixation in all the soils. The percentage of non-symbiotically fixed 15N in potentially mineralizable form (NH 4 + -N released in soil after a 15-day incubation period under anaerobic conditions) was low (2%–18%, depending upon the soil treatment), although most of the fixed N (up to 90%) was recovered as forms hydrolysable with 6N HCl. Recovery in hydrolysable forms was much greater for the fixed N than for the native soil N, indicating that the former was more available for uptake by plants.

Key words

Hydrolysable N Mineralizable N N2-fixation Priming effect Plant available N 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmad Z, Yahiro Y, Kai H, Harada T (1973) Factors affecting immobilization and release of nitrogen in soil and chemical characteristics of the nitrogen newly immobilized; IV. Chemical nature of the organic nitrogen becoming decomposable due to the drying of soil. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 19:287–298Google Scholar
  2. Azam F, Haider K, Malik KA (1985) Transformation of 14C-la-belled plant components in soil in relation to immobilizationremineralization of fertilizer 15N. Plant and Soil 86:15–25Google Scholar
  3. Azam F, Mulvaney RL, Stevenson FJ (1988) Chemical distribution and fate of non-symbiotically fixed N in three contrasting soils. Soil Biol Biochem (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Bremner JM (1965) Organic forms of nitrogen. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Am Soc Agron, Monogr 10, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 17–44Google Scholar
  5. Bremner JM (1977) Use of nitrogen tracer techniques for research on nitrogen fixation. In: Ayanaba A, Dart PJ (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation in farming systems of the tropics. Wiley, New York, pp 335–352Google Scholar
  6. Bremner JM, Mulvaney RL (1982) Total nitrogen. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Am Soc Agron, Monogr 10, vol 2, rev edn, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 594–624Google Scholar
  7. Buresh RJ, Austin ER, Craswell ET (1982) Analytical methods in 15N research. Fert Res 3:37–62Google Scholar
  8. Burns RC, Hardy RWF (1975) Nitrogen fixation in bacteria and higher plants. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Chalk PM (1985) Estimation of N2 fixation by isotopic dilution: An appraisal of techniques involving 15N enrichment and their application. Soil Biol Biochem 17:389–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Charyulu PBBN, Rao VR (1981) Influence of carbon substrate and moisture regime on nitrogen fixation in paddy soils. Soil Biol Biochem 13:39–42Google Scholar
  11. Evans H, Russel HA (1971) Physiological chemistry of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes. In: Postgate JR (ed) Chemistry and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation. Plenum, London, pp 191–224Google Scholar
  12. Franco AA (1978) Micronutrient requirements of Rhizobium —legume symbiosis in the tropics. In: Dobereiner J, Burris RH, Hollaender A, Franco AA, Neyra CA, Scott DB (eds) Limitations and potentials for biological nitrogen fixation in tropics. pp 161–171Google Scholar
  13. He XT, Stevenson FJ (1988) Revised formula for calculating extractability rations of immobilized N in soils. Soil Biol Biochem (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Inubushi K, Watanabe I (1987) Microbial biomass nitrogen in anaerobic soil as affected by N-immobilization and N2-fixation. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 33:213–224Google Scholar
  15. Ito O, Watanabe I (1981) Immobilization, mineralization and availability to rice plants of nitrogen derived from heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in flooded soils. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 27:169–176Google Scholar
  16. Jansson SL, Persson J (1982) Mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen in agricultural soils. In: Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Am Soc Agron, Monogr 22, Madison, Wise, pp 229–252Google Scholar
  17. Jensen HL (1965) Non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In: Bortholomew WV, Clark WE (eds) Soil nitrogen. Am Soc Agron, Madison, pp 436–480Google Scholar
  18. Jones K, Bangs D (1985) Nitrogen fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria in an oak forest: The effect of liming. Soil Biol Biochem 17:705–709Google Scholar
  19. Kapustka LA, Rice EL (1978) Symbiotic and asymbiotic N2-fixation in a tall grass prairie. Soil Biol Biochem 10:553–554Google Scholar
  20. Kelley KR, Stevenson FJ (1985) Characterization and extractability of immobilized 15N from the soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 17:517–523Google Scholar
  21. Ladd JN, Oades JM, Amato M (1981) Distribution and recovery of nitrogen from legume residues decomposing in soils sown to wheat in the field. Soil Biol Biochem 13:251–256Google Scholar
  22. Malik KA, Aslam Z, Naqvi SHM (1986) Kallar grass — a plant for saline land. Nucl Inst Agric Biol, Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  23. Mulvaney RL, Kurtz LT (1982) A new method for determination of 15N-labeled nitrous oxide. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:1178–1184Google Scholar
  24. O'Toole P, Knowles R (1973) Oxygen inhibition of acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) in soil: Effect of glucose and oxygen concentration. Soil Biol Biochem 5:783–788Google Scholar
  25. Rai SN, Gaur AC (1982) Nitrogen fixation by Azospirillum spp. and effect of Azospirillum lipoferum on the yield and N-uptake of wheat crop. Plant Soil 69:233–238Google Scholar
  26. Rao VR (1976) Nitrogen fixation as influenced by moisture, amonium sulphate and organic sources in a paddy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 8:445–448Google Scholar
  27. Siegel RS, Hauck RD, Kurtz LT (1982) Determination of 30N2 and application to measurement of N2 fixation during denitrification. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:68–74Google Scholar
  28. Sparling GP, Williams BL (1986) Microbial biomass in organic soils: Estimation of biomass C and effect of glucose and cellulose amendments on the amounts of N and P released by fumigation. Soil Biol Biochem 18:507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stanford G (1982) Assessment of soil nitrogen availability. In: Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Am Soc Agron, Monogr 22, Madison, Wisc, pp 651–720Google Scholar
  30. Stevenson FJ (1982) Organic forms of nitrogen. In Stevenson FJ (ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Am Soc Agron, Monogr 22, Madison, Wisc, pp 67–122Google Scholar
  31. Steyn PL, Delwiche CC (1970) Nitrogen fixation by nonsymbiotic microorganisms in some California soils. Environ Sci Technol 4:1122–1128Google Scholar
  32. Watanabe I, Rogers PA (1984) Nitrogen fixation in wetland rice field. In: Subba Rao NS (ed) Current developments in biological nitrogen fixation. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, India, pp 237–276Google Scholar
  33. Watanabe I, Lee RR, Alimagno B, Sato M, Del Rosario DC, De Guzman MR (1977) Biological nitrogen fixation in paddy field studied by in situ acetylene reduction assays. Int Rice Res Inst (Los Baños) Res Pap Ser 3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Azam
    • 1
  • R. L. Mulvaney
    • 1
  • F. J. Stevenson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations