Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

, Volume 340, Issue 5, pp 509–515 | Cite as

Neuropeptide Y differentiates between exocytotic and nonexocytotic noradrenaline release in guinea-pig heart

  • Markus Haass
  • Michaela Hock
  • Gert Richardt
  • Albert Schömig


The overflow of neuropeptide Y (NPY; radioimmunoassay), noradrenaline and dihydroxyphenylethylenglycol (DOPEG; high pressure liquid chromatography) from guinea-pig perfused hearts was investigated in relationship to exocytotic and nonexocytotic release mechanisms.

Exocytotic release: Electrical stimulation of the left stellate ganglion (12 Hz; 1 min) evoked a calcium-dependent overflow of noradrenaline and NPY, that was accompanied by a minor and prolonged increase in DOPEG overflow. This increase in DOPEG overflow was attenuated by blockade of neuronal amine re-uptake. In the presence of calcium, a closely related co-release of noradrenaline and NPY was also observed during administration of veratridine (10 μM); it was completely prevented by tetrodotoxin (1 μM). Nonexocytotic release: In the absence of extracellular calcium, veratridine (30 μM) induced noradrenaline overflow only when combined with the reserpine-like agent Ro 4-1284 (10 μM). This overflow was accompanied by efflux of DOPEG, but not of NPY. Similarily, tyramine (1–100 μM) induced a calcium-independent concomitant overflow of both noradrenaline and DOPEG, but not of NPY. During anoxic and glucose-free perfusion a predominantly calcium-independent overflow of noradrenaline was observed; only in the presence of extracellular calcium was this overflow accompanied by a minor overflow of NPY. Noradrenaline overflow, induced by veratridine plus Ro 4-1284 (in the absence of calcium), by tyramine, or by anoxia, was suppressed by blockade of neuronal amine re-uptake, and was, therefore, mediated by reversed transmembrane amine transport by the neuronal uptake1 carrier.

The results indicate that NPY is co-released with noradrenaline only during calcium-dependent exocytosis. On the other hand, whenever, noradrenaline is released by non-exocytotic (calcium-independent and carrier-mediated) release mechanisms, no substantial NPY overflow is observed. The simultaneous determination of noradrenaline and NPY overflow, therefore, allows a differentiation between exocytotic and nonexocytotic noradrenaline release, and NPY may be utilized as a marker of exocytotic noradrenaline release.

Key words

Neuropeptide Y release Noradrenaline release Exocytosis Nonexocytotic release Tyramine Guinea-pig heart 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Haass
    • 1
  • Michaela Hock
    • 1
  • Gert Richardt
    • 1
  • Albert Schömig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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