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Irrigation Science

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 215–229 | Cite as

Yield and foliar injury responses of mature plum trees to salinity

  • G. J. Hoffman
  • P. B. Catlin
  • R. M. Mead
  • R. S. Johnson
  • L. E. Francois
  • D. Goldhamer
Article

Summary

The salt tolerance of mature ‘Santa Rosa’ plum trees was assessed on 20-year-old trees grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The experimental design consisted of six levels of irrigation water salinity (electrical conductivities of 0.3 to 8 dS/m) replicated five times with each replication consisting of ten trees. Salinity treatments imposed in March 1984 did not influence tree yields harvested in June 1984. In 1985, the second year of treatments, yield from the highest salt treatment (electrical conductivity of irrigation water, EC i , of 8 dS/m) was reduced by half; the number of fruit harvested was reduced 40%, and fruit size was reduced significantly. Foliar damage was so severe by the end of 1985 that nonsaline water was applied to the two highest salt treatments (EC i = 6 and 8 dS/m) in an attempt to restore tree vigor. In 1986 salt effects had become progressively worse on the continuing saline treatments. A linear piece-wise salt tolerance curve is presented for soil salinity values, expressed as the electrical conductivity of saturated extracts (EC e ) integrated to a soil depth of 1.2 m over a 2-year period. The salt tolerance threshold for relative yield (Y r ) based on 3 years of data was 2.6 dS/m and yield reduction at salinity levels beyond the threshold was 31% per dS/m (Yir=100 − 31 [EC e − 2.6]j). Significant foliar damage occurred when leaf chloride concentrations surpassed 200 mmol/kg of leaf dry weight (0.7%). Sodium concentrations in the leaves remained below 10 mmol/kg (0.02%) until foliar damage became severe. This suggests that chloride was the dominant ion causing foliar damage.

Keywords

Irrigation Water Salt Tolerance Fruit Size Injury Response Tolerance Threshold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. Hoffman
    • 1
  • P. B. Catlin
    • 2
  • R. M. Mead
    • 1
  • R. S. Johnson
    • 3
  • L. E. Francois
    • 4
  • D. Goldhamer
    • 3
  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Water Management Research LaboratoryFresnoUSA
  2. 2.Pomology DepartmentUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Cooperative ExtensionUniversity of California, Kearney Agricultural CenterParlierUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARS, Salinity LaboratoryRiversideUSA

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